Primary Activities Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?

A. Coffee

B. Sugarcane

C. Wheat

D. Rubber


Answer:

Option(C) is correct because wheat is not a plantation crop. Plantation crops are usually grown for profits. Wheat is a principal crop and worldwide staple food. It is grown on about 220 million hectares worldwide, covering more land area than any crop.


Option (A) is not correct because coffee is a plantation crop. It is traditionally grown in the Western Ghats. Now it is grown in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil nadu. It is an export product with high employment content.


Option (B) is not correct because sugarcane is a plantation crop. It is grown in sub tropical and tropical areas. It is mainly cultivated for sugar but it is also grown for bio fuel production.


Option (D) is not correct because rubber is a plantation crop. It is an important commercial product grown in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Rubber is used for making tires, mattresses etc.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?

A. Russia

B. Denmark

C. India

D. The Netherlands


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because Denmark is the country where co-operative farming was the most successful experiment. Co-operative farming is an organisation where farmers remain the owner of his land individually but farming is done jointly. In Denmark, the movement was so successful that every farmer becomes member of a co-operative.


Option (A) is not correct because Russia focused more on collective farming. Collective farming is based on social ownerships. It was introduced in erstwhile Soviet Union.


Option (C) is not correct because in India different types of farming are practised such as shifting agriculture, subsistence agriculture etc. Co-operative farming failed in India because all farmers are not agreed to grow same crop. Farmers expect more shares in profits compared to others.


Option (D) is not correct because in Netherland co-operative farming was practised but not so successful as compared to Denmark.


Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Growing of flowers is called:

A. Truck farming

B. Factory farming

C. Mixed farming

D. Floriculture


Answer:

Option (D) is correct because growing of flower is called floriculture. It is the branch of horticulture. Floriculture is not only related to cultivation of flowers but it is also related to cultivation of ornamental plants for gardens.


Option (A) is not correct because truck farming is related to production of vegetables.


Option (B) is not correct because factory farming is related to raising large numbers of animals for foods.


Option (C) is not correct because mixed farming involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?

A. Kolkhoz

B. Viticulture

C. Mixed farming

D. Plantation


Answer:

Option (D) is correct because plantation was developed by European colonists. Plantations farming require large capital investment, managerial and technical support.


Option (A) is not correct because Kolkhoz was introduced in Soviet Union to improve the methods of agriculture.


Option (B) is not correct because viticulture was developed by Phoenicians which were later used in Carthage.


Option (C) is not correct because mixed farming was found in developed parts of world such as North Western Europe, Eastern North America, and parts of Eurasia.


Question 5.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivation not practised?

A. American Canadian prairies

B. European Steppes

C. Pampas of Argentina

D. Amazon Basin


Answer:

Option (D) is correct because Amazon Basin is the region where extensive commercial grain cultivation is not practised. Commercial grain cultivation is practised in the interior parts of semi arid lands of the mid latitudes. Amazon Basin is the largest tropical forest in the world. People practise shifting cultivation here.


Option (A) is not correct because American Canadian prairies experience dry semi arid climates with an annual precipitation of 12 to 15 inches which is suitable for commercial grain cultivation.


Option (B) is not correct because European steppes are the largest temperate steppe and experience semi arid climate which is best for commercial grain cultivation.


Option (C) is not correct because Pampas of Argentina is also semi arid region. Wheat is Argentina’s largest crop in harvested land area.


Question 6.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?

A. Market gardening

B. Plantation agriculture

C. Mediterranean agriculture

D. Co-operative farming


Answer:

Option (C) is correct because in Mediterranean agriculture the farming of citrus fruit is very important. South Western parts of South Africa, Southern California and south western parts of Australia are important supplier of citrus fruits.


Option (A) is not correct because market gardening is related to cultivation of high valuable crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers.


Option (B) is not correct because plantation agriculture is mainly done for profits. Example of plantation crops are tea, coffee, cocoa etc.


Option (D) is not correct because in co-operative farming group of farmers form a society by pooling in their resources for more efficient and profitable farming.


Question 7.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and burn agriculture’?

A. Extensive subsistence agriculture

B. Primitive subsistence agriculture

C. Extensive commercial grain cultivation

D. Mixed farming


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because primitive subsistence agriculture is also slash and burn agriculture. It is widely practised by many tribes in the tropics especially in Africa, south East Asia.


Option (A) is not correct because extensive subsistence agriculture is practised in moderately populated region and it is practised in large farms with relatively lower inputs.


Option (C) is not correct because extensive commercial grain cultivation is the cultivation of principal crop such as wheat and also other crops like corn, barley etc. It is practised in semi arid region.


Option (D) is not correct because mixed farming is also known as polyculture. It is a system of farming which involves the growing of crops as well s the raising of livestock.


Question 8.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?

A. Dairy farming

B. Mixed farming

C. Plantation agriculture

D. Commercial grain farming


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because mixed farming does not follow monoculture. Monoculture is the production of single crop or raising of single livestock. Mixed farming involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock.


Option (A) is not correct because dairy farming is monoculture. It is a type of agriculture for production of milk.


Option (C) is not correct because plantation agriculture is the cultivation of cash crops.


Option (D) is not correct because commercial grain farming is an extensive and mechanised form of agriculture in which we mainly cultivate grain.


Question 9.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.


Answer:

Shifting cultivation is also called slash and burn agriculture. It is an agricultural system in which a person uses a piece of land, cut trees and clear the land for cultivation. They burn the uprooted trees and mix their ashes in the soil so as to fertile the soil. After cultivation and harvesting they move on to other land and repeat the process. Future of shifting cultivation is bleak because this has resulted in large scale deforestation and increases soil infertility.



Question 10.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Market gardening is practised near urban areas. Why?


Answer:

Market gardening is the production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops on relatively small scales and sold directly to consumers. It is both labour and capital intensive. It is practised near urban areas because there is good transportation links with urban centre and high group of consumers are located. It is mainly practised there for more and more profit.



Question 11.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.


Answer:

Dairy farming is a type of agriculture that is focused on producing milk. Milk can be used to produce dairy products such as cheese, ghee etc. It is highly labour and capital intensive. Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration because dairy products require quick and suitable transportation as these items are perishable and refrigeration have increased the duration of storage of these products.



Question 12.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.


Answer:




Question 13.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name

a few important plantation crops from

different countries.


Answer:

Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown on large land area. These crops are grown for profit. Plantation crops are also known as cash crop.

The important characteristic features of plantation agriculture are:


*It requires scientific methods of cultivation.


*It is both labour intensive and capital intensive.


*Crops are mainly grown for market.


*Large capital investment is done.


*It is a single crop farming practised on a large area.


*A good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the exports of the products play an important role in development of plantation.


*Managerial and technical support helps in development of plantation.


Few important plantation crops from different countries are:


*Tea is a plantation crop mainly grown in India and Sri Lanka.


*Rubber is also a plantation crop grown mainly in Malaysia.


*Sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.


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