Secondary Activities Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following statements is wrong?

A. Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.

B. Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.

C. The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry.

D. Port towns in India have attracted industries.


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are not footloose industries. Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetables oils require specific raw material and footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material.


Option (A) is not correct because cheap water transport has facilitated jute mill industry along the Hugli. Jute industry requires a lot of water which is easily available from the Hugli River.


Option (C) is not correct because the development of hydro electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a locational factor for industry as Coal is easily transported to industry compared to petroleum and hydro electricity. Industries which use more power are located close to the source of energy.


Option (D) is not correct because port towns in India have attracted industries as ports constitute an important economic activity in coastal areas. Seaways transportation is the cheapest and effective transportation system compared to other systems.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually?

A. Capitalist

B. Mixed

C. Socialist

D. None


Answer:

Option (A) is correct because Capitalist economy is the factors of production owned individually. It affords economic freedom, consumer choice, and economic growth.


Option (B) is not correct because Socialist economy is controlled by the state and planned by a central planning authority.


Option (C) is not correct because mixed economy is an economy system combining private and state enterprise.


Option (D) is not correct because capitalist is the correct answer.


Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?

A. Cottage Industries

B. Small-scale Industries

C. Basic Industries

D. Footloose Industries


Answer:

Option (C) is correct because basic industries produce raw materials for other industries. Iron and steel industry are called basic industry. It forms the base of all other industries. Iron and steel form machine tools which are used for further production.


Option (A) is not correct because cottage industry is a small scale industry where the creation of products and services are home based.


Option (B) is not correct because small scale industries use raw material, simple power driven machine for producing goods.


Option (D) is not correct because footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material. They depend on component parts which can be obtained anywhere.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

A. Automobile industry … Los Angeles

B. Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka

C. Aircraft industry … Florence

D. Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh


Answer:

Option (D) is correct because Pittsburgh is an important steel and iron city of United States of America. The processing of iron began in Pittsburgh in mid 19th century.


Option (A) is not correct because automobile industry was first invented in Germany and France in late 1800s.


Option (B) is not correct because Lusaka is famous for its centrality. It is famous for manufacturing and banking industry.


Option (C) is not correct because Florence is mainly famous for textile industry.


Question 5.

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.

High-Tech industry


Answer:

High tech is the most advanced technology available. High tech industries play an important role in modern economy. These industries are regionally concentrated, self sustained and highly specialised. These industries emphasize on research and development and produce sophisticated products. Example of high tech industries are robotics on the assembly line, computer aided design and electronic controls of smelting and refining processes.



Question 6.

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.

Manufacturing


Answer:

The process of converting raw materials into finished goods by the use of labour or machine is known as manufacturing. It may be done with primitive method or may be done with modern power and machinery. It involves production of goods in large quantities. Example: Paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane etc.



Question 7.

Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.

Footloose industries


Answer:

Footloose industries can be placed anywhere. They are located where transport links are good. They do not cause pollution. They have a low demand for raw materials and don’t need big sites for their factories. They need highly skilled workers and produce goods in small quantity. The final product is low in weight which is easily transported by road. Examples of footloose industries are diamonds and computer chips.



Question 8.

Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.


Answer:




Question 9.

Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.


Answer:

Developed countries means the country is advanced in terms of infrastructure, industrialization, income per capita and standards of living. Examples of developed countries in the world are Japan, Israel, and Singapore etc.

Modern industrial activities involve the application of power, mass production of identical products and specialised labour.


Major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world are:


*Specialisation of production: It is a method of production which focuses on the production of a limited scope of goods to gain a greater degree of efficiency.


*Mechanisation: Machines and gadgets are used for production of goods. Mechanisation helps in improving the quality of work. The work performed with the help of machine is generally more neat and legible than the work completed with hand. The advance stage of mechanisation is automation.


*Technological innovation: Industry in developed countries emphasizes on research and development and finding new ways to improve quality eliminate wastage and controlling pollution. It has become an essential feature of manufacturing industry.



Question 10.

Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.


Answer:

High tech industries are latest generation manufacturing unit. These industries produce sophisticated products. These industries are regionally concentrated, self sustained and highly specialised. It plays an important role in the modern economy. It experience significantly higher pay than other industries. It emphasize on research and development. This industry require professional worker. Usages of robotics, computer aided design and electronic controls are common in this industry.

Metropolitan areas are region consisting of a densely populated urban population. It is considered as vital economical, cultural and political centres of a state. These cities provide adequate employment opportunities and consist of highly skilled labours. Metropolitan areas are the perfect supplier of skilled labours which is very important for high tech industries growth as it is highly mechanized. Therefore, high tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres.



Question 11.

Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.


Answer:

Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent because of following reasons.

*The continent Africa lack good institutions and schools and all people are not well educated and have not proper knowledge of natural resources utilization.


*There is lack of human resources.


*Frequent civil wars take place in Africa which leads to loss of resources and it also cause mass scale corruption in the government and hinders the growth of country.


*Foreign rule over African countries and use their resources for their own benefits rather than developing industries.


*There is lack of technology. The exploration and extraction of natural resources could not be possible without technology.


*Africa has indigenous and numerous resources but it is poorly distributed among people and states in those countries. Wealth distribution is an issue which make it industrially backward and poor country.


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