Human Development Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following best describes development?

A. an increase in size

B. a constant in size

C. a positive change in quality

D. a simple change in the quality


Answer:

Development, unlike growth, is a qualitative change. It cannot be said to have taken place unless there has been an increment or addition to the existing conditions. Hence, development is value positive (can only increase) and occurs only when there is a positive change in quality.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following scholars introduced the concept of Human Development?

A. Prof. Amartya Sen

B. Ellen C. Semple

C. Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq

D. Ratzel


Answer:

The concept of Human Development was introduced by Dr Mahabub-ul-Haq, and in this concept people are central to all development. According to this concept, the basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.


Question 3.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What are the three basic areas of human development?


Answer:

The concept of human development focuses on the upliftment of people more than anything else. The scholars have identified three basic areas for assessing human development, they are: -

1. Access to Resources


2. Access to Health


3. Access to Education


These three factors comprise the basic requirements to ensure that development is reaching the people. It is ultimately people who make up any state, thus development can occur only when the basic conditions of people – of health, education and resources - are sufficiently met.



Question 4.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Name the four main components of human development?


Answer:

The concept of human development rests on the following four components:


Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody, irrespective of gender, race, income, caste, etc.


Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. This is based on the premise that to have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities.


Productivity signifies human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work, and this factor must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.


Empowerment means to have the power to make choices, which can come from increasing freedom and capability.



Question 5.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

How are countries classified on the basis of human development index?


Answer:

Countries are classified into four groups on the basis of their human development scores. These are:


Very high HDI: these are countries with an HDI score of over 0.800.


High HDI: these are countries with an HDI score between 0.799 and 0.701.


Medium HDI: these are countries with an HDI score between 0.700 and 0.550.


Low HDI: these are countries with an HDI score below 0.549.



Question 6.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

What do you understand by the term human development?


Answer:

The term human development points to the fact that meaningful development cannot take place unless conditions for human existence improves. Access to health, education and resources comprises the basic human necessity. Dr Mabub-ul-Haq, who introduced this concept, has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choice and improves their lives.


Human choice is the keyword. People often fail to realise their capability and freedom to make even basic choices, due to their inability to acquire knowledge, their material poverty, social discrimination, the inefficiency of institutions, etc. This prevents them from leading healthy lives, being able to get educated, or to have the means to a decent life. Building people’s capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources are therefore, important in enlarging their choices.


Thus, human development is necessary to enable people to see their true choices and potential, and lead a life to their fullest ability.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

What do equity and sustainability refer to within the concept of human development?


Answer:

Equity and sustainability are the two main components of human development. Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody; irrespective of their gender, race, income, caste, or anything. The basic idea is to ensure equitable distribution of opportunity to every individual, so they can exercise their choice without any hindrance. Each must get an equal share of the developmental pie, and human development cannot be said to have happened if only one set of individuals get all the opportunities.

Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities, which is based on the premise that to have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. The idea is to ensure sustainable use of all environmental, financial and human resources while considering the future requirements. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations. Hence, each generation must have the same starting point.