Planning And Sustainable Development In Indian Context Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Regional planning relates to:

A. Development of various sectors of economy.

B. Area specific approach of development.

C. Area differences in transportation network.

D. Development of rural areas.


Answer:

Economic development, over space, is not uniform in any country. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This necessitates the planners to have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalances in development. This type of planning is referred to as regional planning.


Question 2.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Define the concept of sustainable development.


Answer:

Sustainable development is defined as the “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Our Common Future, 1987; Brundtland Report).



Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

ITDP refers to which one of the following?

A. Integrated Tourism Development Programme

B. Integrated Travel Development Programme

C. Integrated Tribal Development Programme

D. Integrated Transport Development Programme


Answer:

The Integrated Tribal Development Programme is an area development plan, aimed at improving the quality of life of the tribal communities and narrowing the gap in the level of development of the tribal region with the rest of the state.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

A. Agricultural development

B. Eco-development

C. Transport development

D. Colonisation of land


Answer:

Attaining sustainable development in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability.


Question 5.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?


Answer:

The social benefits derived from ITDP includes a significant increase in literacy rate – especially female literacy, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage.



Question 6.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?


Answer:

Introduction of irrigation in the IGCCA has transformed the ecology, economy and society. Availability of soil moisture for a longer period and various afforestation programmes resulted in greening of the land. It has also helped in increasing the cultivable area and intensity of cropping. Overall, intensive irrigation has led to tremendous increase in productivity.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this

programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?


Answer:

Initiated during the 4th Five Year Plan, the objectives of drought prone area programme was providing employment to people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. The programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works, initially. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and criterion of basic rural infrastructure, such as electricity, market, credit and services.


The National Committee on Development of Backward Area observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoring ecological balance. Moreover, as growing population pressure is forcing society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone areas.


The Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts of the country prone to drought. These districts are spread over Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu.



Question 8.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.


Answer:

The ecological sustainability of Indira Gandhi Canal Project has been a serious problem before the authorities, especially after the initial thrust of the project has resulted in degradation of the physical environment. To achieve ecological sustainability seven measures have been proposed:

1. Strict implementation of water management policy, which is to be protective irrigation in Stage-1 and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-2.


2. Cropping pattern shall not include water-intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.


3. The Canal Area Development programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.


4. The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.


5. The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-2.


6. The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.


7. The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop alongside other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres and market centres.


Thus, the measures to promote sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area have adopted a holistic outlook towards development with an objective to improve the living standards of the inhabitant around the IGCCA region.


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