Transport And Communication Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

A. 9

B. 12

C. 16

D. 14


Answer:

Indian Railways is the largest government undertaking in the country. The length of Indian Railway network was 66,030 km as on 31 March 2015. Its very large size puts a lot of pressure on a centralised railway management system. Thus, in India, the railway system has been divided into 16 zones.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following is the longest highway of India?

A. N.H.-1

B. N.H.-6

C. N.H.-7

D. N.H.-8


Answer:

N.H.-7 covers a major portion of the North-South Corridor, running from Kanyakumari to Varanasi, it covers a length of 2369 kms and is the longest ‘single’ highway in India.


Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?

A. The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri

B. The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

C. West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam


Answer:

Sadiya-Dubri stretch forms National Waterway 2 and the West Coast Canal forms National Waterway 3.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?

A. 1911

B. 1936

C. 1927

D. 1923


Answer:

Radio broadcasting in India began with the setting up of Radio Club of Bombay in 1923, which was later acquired by the government and renamed to All India Radio in 1936 and Akashwani in 1957.


Question 5.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.


Answer:

Transportation coveys the activities of distribution of goods from site of production to site of consumption, i.e., from place of availability to place of use. The three major modes of transportation are Land, Air and Water.



Question 6.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.


Answer:

Pipelines are the most efficient mode for transporting materials over long distances. It is safer and far efficient than any other means. However, the initial costs of laying down pipelines are often highly expensive and takes far too much bureaucracy to operationalise.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What do you mean by ‘communication’?


Answer:

Communication is the process through which information is imparted or exchanged, especially through writing or speaking, or using some other medium. The 21st century has witnessed the human ability to communicate with others explode in terms of the reach.



Question 8.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.


Answer:

Air transport began in India in 1911, between Allahabad and Naini. Over the next four decades, many companies joined the air service sector. In 1953, the government nationalised air transport, into two corporations; Air India International to take care of international services and Indian Airlines to look after the domestic sector.



Question 9.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.


Answer:

Road, Rail and Air transport makes up the chief means of transportation in India. By all means, India has adequate network of connectivity but it is not sufficient. With the second largest population in the World, and rough terrains over the Himalayas in the north and northeast, and varied terrain of central India, transport links have not been able to reach every corner of the country. A significant section of the population, especially in rural areas, relying on walking as there is no all-weather roads or rail-lines. Roads in high altitudes require frequent maintenance to keep it functioning, in the face of land/mud slides, avalanches and other vagaries of the climate. Rail transport stills looses out lakhs of potential revenues due to ticket-less travel and lack of effective implementation of policies for strict vigil. Developing air strips and maintaining airports have always remained far too expensive for less developed states, hence private companies are operating these airports. Moreover, the cost of air transport is expensive for lower middle-class families, and therefore is catering only to the urban regions. The Government has taken significant steps to address these obstacles and further their development. Example, UDAN scheme for air pricing.



Question 10.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.


Answer:

Railways has been the lifeline of India. It is one of the longest networks in the world and facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of the economy. No wonder, Gandhiji had said, the railways “…brought people of diverse cultures together to contribute to India’s freedom struggle”. Introduced in 1853, Indian railways is now the largest government undertaking in the country. In view of modernising the network, the government has launched extensive programme to convert the metre and narrow gauges to broad gauge, also steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electric engines; this had increased the speed, as well as, the haulage capacity. The most significant development, post-Independence, has been the development of the Konkan Railway along the western coast providing a direct link between Mumbai and Mangaluru. Rail transport is much cheaper compared to road and air, and therefore, still continues to be the main means of transport for the masses.



Question 11.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.


Answer:

Roadways are often described as economic arteries of India. With the second largest road network in the world with a total length of 54.8 lakh km (5.48 million km), Indian roadways transports 85% of passengers and 70% of freight every year. The roads, thus, plays a vital role in commerce. For instance, without road transport, manufacturers would not have products and components, consumers would not receive goods, and businesses would not be able to trade internationally. Roads, therefore, offer a safe, seamless and secure way to transport goods around the country.


National Highways are constructed and maintained by the Central Government. Meant for inter-state transport of goods and movement of defence men and material in strategic areas, these are the most important roadways in terms of economic value. Other significant roadways include State highways, District Roads and Rural roads, which spreads to the remote regions of the country. The crucial roadways in the border regions of the north and northeast are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation. International highways passing through India are meant to promote the harmonious relationship with the neighbouring countries by providing effective links with India.


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