Answer the following questions. What are the techniques of scientific management according to F.W. Taylor?

Answer the following questions.

What are the techniques of scientific management according to F.W. Taylor?

ANSWER:

The techniques of scientific management are as follows:

i. Functional foremanship - A foreman is a person who is in charge of the workers at the operational level. Taylor suggested that in order to increase efficiency in an organisation, performance of a foreman should be improved. Taylor observed and identified few qualities such as intelligence, tactfulness and judgement that a foreman should have. He found that no single person can have all the required qualities. Thus, he suggested that instead of a single person, there should be eight persons to perform the functions of a foreman. This technique is called functional foremanship.

ii. Standardisation of work - Standardisation of work implies setting a milestone or benchmark for any work or activity. It aims at establishing standards of excellence against which actual performance can be measured.

iii. Time study - In this technique, Taylor emphasised setting a standard time limit for completing any particular job. With the help of time-measuring tools, considerable readings can be taken of the time taken to complete a task. On the basis of this, a standard time limit can be set for each task. This helps in deciding the number of workers to be employed for a task, determining their wages, etc.

iv. Motion study - As the name suggests, motion study refers to the study of motion (movements) involved while doing a task. The technique aims at removing unwanted actions/motions so that the work can be completed in a lesser time. According to Taylor, by eliminating the unproductive movements, productivity can be increased.

v. Different piece rate plan - Under this system, workers should be classified as efficient or inefficient on the basis of certain specific standards (related to quality and quantity) and the payment of these workers should then be paid accordingly. For example, the standard output per labour per day is 10 units. Now, it is decided that the workers who make more than or equal to the standard units will get Rs 20 per unit and those who make less than the standard units will get Rs 10 per unit. In this way, a difference can be made between efficient and inefficient workers.

vi. Other techniques - Taylor introduced other techniques such as the use of instruction cards, rules and regulations for discipline and use of charts or graphs to instruct the employees. Some techniques also emphasised on building cooperation and mutual trust between the workers and the managers.

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