Answer the following questions. What is scientific management? Explain the principles of scientific management in details.

Answer the following questions.

What is scientific management? Explain the principles of scientific management in details.

ANSWER:

The term “scientific management” was developed by Frederick Taylor (1856–1915) in 1911. It refers to the classical outlook of management that focused on devising best ways of doing work in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency in work. Scientific management suggests that work should be done by specialised personnel following standardised techniques and using tools so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and, at the same time, to reduce the overall cost.

The following are the principles of scientific management:

i. Development of Science for each part of men’s job - Before Taylor developed the principles of management, the rule of thumb was a widely used concept. Under the rule of thumb, each manger handled a situation or problem as and when it arose using the trial-and-error method. Taylor introduced scientific methods in problem solving. He believed that there exists only one best method of doing every work. He wanted managers to take decisions on the basis of logic and science rather than on the basis of the rule of thumb.

ii. Cooperation between management and employees - Taylor emphasised managers and workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise their interdependence and work in amity. He was well acquainted with the fact that a friendly working environment can help develop relations between workers. He introduced this principle to maintain a peaceful kinship among people.

iii. Division of responsibility - This principle emphasised that the work and the responsibility should be divided between the managers and the employees according to their role and nature. The top-level managers should be assigned the planning work whereas the implementation and execution of plans should be the responsibility of workers. This would ensure efficiency and effectiveness in work.

iv. Scientific selection, training and development of workers - Taylor suggested that selection of employees is an important task for a manager. The selection procedure should be perfect. The following points should be considered before hiring employees:

a. The selection procedure should be scientific; that is, it should not be based on the judgement of a particular person.

b. The qualities or the requirements for the job should be clearly defined to make the selection process easier.

c. The selection of employees should be based on tests and personal interviews.

d. The employees should be trained regularly.

e. The manager should provide opportunities to the workers to grow.

f. The manager should motivate each and every employee to improve his/her efficiency.

v. Mental revolution - Mental revolution implies changing the attitude of workers and managers. Mental revolution aims at improving the thinking of both the parties to create a better working environment. Workers and their managers should change their attitude and each of them should realise the importance of the other. Both should work towards the achievement of common goals of the organisation.

vi. Maximum prosperity for employer and employees - The main purpose of scientific management is to maximise prosperity for employers and employees. The following points can help make it possible:

a. Employees should be given ample opportunities to attain highest efficiency.

b. Resources should be properly utilised.

c. Employees should give maximum output.

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