Transport And Communication Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Class 12th Fundamentals Of Human Geography CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

The Trans–Continental Stuart Highway runs between

A. Darwin and Melbourne

B. Edmonton and Anchorage

C. Vancouver and St. John’s City

D. Chengdu and Lhasa


Answer:

Option (A) is correct because the Trans-Continental Stuart Highways runs between Darwin and Melbourne. The Trans-Continental Stuart highway connects Darwin (north coast) and Melbourne via Tennant Creek and Alice Springs in Australia.


Option (B) is not correct because the Alaskan Highway links Edmonton to Anchorage.


Option (C) is not correct because the Trans Canadian Highway run between Vancouver in British Columbia and St. John’s City in Newfoundland.


Option (D) is not correct because Sichuan-Tibet Highway connects Chengdu of Sichuan to Lhasa of Tibet.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which country has the highest density of railway network?

A. Brazil

D. Russia

C. Canada

B. U.S.A


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because U.S.A has the highest density of railway network. It has about 250,000km of railway network.


Option (A) is not correct because Brazil has about 28,000km railway network.


Option (C) is not correct because Canada has about 48,000km railway network.


Option (D) is not correct because Russia has about 85,500km railway network.


Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

The Big Trunk Route runs through

A. The Mediterranean – Indian Ocean

B. The North Atlantic Ocean

C. The South Atlantic Ocean

D. The North Pacific Ocean


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because the Big Trunk Route runs through the North Atlantic Ocean. One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route. It is busiest sea route in the world.


Option (A) is not correct because the Mediterranean –Indian Ocean route serves more countries and people than any other route.


Option (C) is not correct because the South Atlantic Ocean has the Southern Atlantic Sea route which connects West European and West African countries with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America.


Option (D) is not correct because the North Pacific Ocean route links the ports on the west –coast of North America with those of Asia.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

The Big Inch pipeline transports

A. Milk

B. Liquid petroleum gas (LGP)

C. Water

D. Petroleum


Answer:

Option (D) is correct because the big inch pipeline transports petroleum. Big Inch is the famous oil pipeline of U.S.A. It is the most convenient and commercial mode of transport of mineral oil and gas.


Option (A) is not correct because milk is transported from the farm to the processor in special stainless steel insulated tankers.


Option (B) is not correct because liquid petroleum gas can be transported in a number of ways by ship, rail, tanker trucks and pipelines.


Option (C) is not correct because water is transported by pipelines, canals and tunnels.


Question 5.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one pair of the following places is linked by Channel Tunnel?

A. London – Berlin

B. Paris – London

C. Berlin – Paris

D. Barcelona – Berlin


Answer:

Option (B) is correct because Channel Tunnel links Paris and London. It is the longest underground tunnel in the world. It is operated by Euro Tunnel Group.


Option (A) is not correct because Berlin is the capital of Germany’s connected by different rail lines with London.


Option (C) is not correct because TE tunnel connects Berlin to Paris.


Option (D) is not correct because Barcelona and Berlin is connected by different rail lines and airways.


Question 6.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What are the problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions?


Answer:

Road transport is a transportation of goods and passenger for short distances. It offers door to door services.

The problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions are different. In mountainous region steep slope and unlevelled patterns are found which create obstacles in construction of roads. High amount of costs are required for maintenance and construction of roads. In desert area excessive sand creates problems in construction of roads and in flood prone areas roads are damaged frequently.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What is a trans–continental railway?


Answer:

Trans-continental railway run from one side of a continent to other continent. It links two ends of continent. The main purpose for constructing trans-continental railway was for economic and political reasons. It was also used for businesses. Industrialists could manage businesses on both coasts. The other purpose was to develop the interior of the country.



Question 8.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What are the advantages of water transport?


Answer:

Water transport is the process of moving people, goods etc by boat, ship, or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake and river.

The advantages of water transport are:


*It is the cheapest means of transportation.


*It does not require route construction.


*It is most suitable for carrying bulky goods over long distances.


*Maintenance cost of water transport is less as compare to maintenance cost in road and rail transport.


*It is useful during natural calamities like flood and rains, when road transport is disrupted.



Question 9.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Elucidate the statement– “In a well managed transport system, various modes complement each other”.


Answer:

In a well managed transport system, various modes do not compete with each other but complement each other. Transportation plays a major role in the overall economic development. It has resulted into the excellent comfort and convenience. It has the superior quality to the growth of infrastructure, industrialization and massive production. It facilitates the work to the people and it creates both direct and indirect jobs.

*Road, railways, airways and waterways all are linked to expand the trade. Trade or exchange of the commodities in a developing country depends on the various modes of transport.


*Railways also serve ports so that goods can move faster and more cheaply. It is most suitable for moving bulky goods over long distances in a country.


*Roadways are suitable for the short distances. It offers door to door services.


*Air transport is the most appropriate option for urgent and fast work.


*Water transport play important role in international movement of bulky goods.


*Liquid and gases such as water and petroleum can be transported through pipelines.


*Air transport helps in crossing mountains and seas faster than any other transport.



Question 10.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.Which are the major regions of the world having a dense network of airways?


Answer:

Air transport is the fastest means of transportation. It provides the comfort, efficient and quick transport service. It plays a significant role in the national defence of the country. It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, deserts, dense forests and long oceanic stretches with great ease. Air services are available to many parts of the world.

*The major regions of the world having a dense network of airways are U.S.A, Western Europe and South East Asia.


*U.S.A alone has 60% of the airways of the world.


*Today, more than 250 commercial airlines offer regular services to different parts of world.


*The nodal points where air routes converge or radiate to all continents are New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt Rome, Moscow, Karachi, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo and Chicago.


*U.S.A developed largely post war international civil aeration.


*Some continents or countries lack air services. Africa, Asiatic part of Russia and South America lack air services.


*Due to limited landmass, economic development and sparser population Southern Hemisphere have limited air services.



Question 11.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.What are the modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans?


Answer:

Cyber space is an electronic medium used to form a global computer network to facilitate online communication. It is a virtual computer world. It exists in office, sailing boat, flying plane etc. It is also referred to as the Internet. It allows user to share information, interact, play games and conduct business.

The modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans are:


*e-mail: e-mail stands for electronic mail. It is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronics. It is fast, no other forms of communication are as fast as an email. Simple and formal languages used in email. It provides a private communication gateway between you and anyone else all over the world. This allows more frequent communication at a lower price than the telephone.


*e-commerce: e-commerce is the process of buying and selling products by electronic means such as internet or by mobile applications. The customer can order the product of their own choice and get it delivered to their home. It is a way of doing business online.


*e-learning: e-learning is simple. It is the use of technology to enable to learn anytime and anywhere. It reduces time away from the workplace, eliminates the need for travel, and removes the need for classroom based training.


*e-governance: e-commerce stands for electronic governance. It is the use of information technology to improve the delivery of government services to citizens. It also play very important role in technical education field.


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