Poverty As A Challenge Class 9th Economics CBSE Solution

Poverty As A Challenge Class 9th Economics CBSE Solution


Let's Discuss Pg-32
Question 1.

Why do different countries use different poverty lines?


Answer:

Each country uses different poverty lines because different countries’ basic needs vary according to their social and economic situations. Because of the variable cost of living which varies from country to country different countries have different poverty lines. In some countries the income required to live a life which is above poverty line is lower than the income require to live a life which is above poverty line in another country. For example, if we look at America then its basic need is car where the basic need of India is bread, cloth and house. A person will be categorised under the poor in America if she/he doesn’t have a car but in India, car is still considered a luxury item.



Question 2.

What do you think would be the ‘minimum necessary level’ in your locality?


Answer:

According to me minimum necessary level in our locality is two thousand rupees per month, because I live in very poor locality. Because of belonging to poor strata, we are unable to earn much and because of low income we are unable to spend more; that’s why the minimum necessary level in our locality is very low. We don’t need much to spend on luxuries or lavishing things because already it’s very difficult task for us to earn for our basic needs.




Let's Discuss Pg-33
Question 1.

Study the Table above and answer the following questions:



1. Even if poverty ratio declined between 1993-94 and 2004-05, why did the number of poor remain at about 407 million?

2. Are the dynamics of poverty reduction the same in rural and urban India?


Answer:

1. Even if poverty ratio declined, the number of poor remained at about 407 million because of rapid growth in population. Because of growing population opportunities of employment and supply of food have become a big issue for the government. Besides these two things the fact is that the first and foremost issue for government is to get the basic needs of the individuals fulfilled and till the time every citizen gets the requisite basic amenities, this number is likely to rise.

2. The dynamics of poverty reduction are not the same in rural and urban India because the rural poor and urban poor have to face different issues of poverty. For example landlessness is major issue of poverty in rural areas but in urban areas unemployment is the major issue.




Let's Discuss Pg-35
Question 1.

Observe some of the poor families around you and try to find the following:

(i) Which social and economic group do they belong to?

(ii) Who are the earning members in the family?

(iii) What is the condition of the old people in the family?

(iv) Are all the children (boys and girls) attending schools?


Answer:

(i) Some of the poor families around us belong to social groups like scheduled tribes and scheduled castes households and economic group like rural agricultural labour household. Few of them belong to other social groups as well.


(ii) Usually each able member of these families earns through some or other activity. This is because the wages earned by one or two members of the family are usually not enough to help sustain the household.


(iii) The older people in these families have the most dilapidated situation. They suffer from medical conditions but don’t get enough medical attention due to lack of resources. They do not get respect in the family as they are considered burdensome for the family.


(iv) Hardly any of the children are attending school. The parents who even send their children to schools, send the male children, while the female children are left at home to manage household chores.




Let's Discuss Pg-36
Question 1.

Study the Graph above and do the following:

Poverty Ratio in Selected Indian States, 1999-2000



(i) Identify the three states where the poverty ratio is the highest.

(ii) Identify the three states where poverty ratio is the lowest.


Answer:

(i) In states like Orissa, Bihar and Assam, the poverty ratio is the highest because these are the states that have been suffering from underdevelopment, illiteracy and other issues which further deteriorates the bad condition of the poor.


(ii) In states like Kerela, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in these states the poverty ratio is the lowest because of the economic development in these states. These states have been developed upto a limit from the very beginning and people are educated, they have skills and knowledge which makes it easier for them to be on the favorable side of poverty line.



Question 2.

Study the Graph and do the following:

Graph: Number of poor by region ($1 per day) in millions)



1. Identify the areas of world where poverty ratios have declined.

2. Identify the areas of globe which has the largest concentration of the poor.


Answer:

1. In China, East Asia, and South Asia, the poverty ratios have declined. The socio-cultural and economic factors also are responsible for poverty.


2. The Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest concentration of the poor. People living in poverty in this region were 54 percent in 1990, and have decreased meagerly to 41 percent in 2013. This dip is disproportionate to other regions which have shown drastic decline in the percentage of poor over the same period.




Exercise
Question 1.

Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.


Answer:

Following are the methods which are used in calculating the poverty line in India:

1. A minimum level of food requirement, foot-wear, fuel and light, clothing, educational and medical requirements etc. are the basic factors on which the basis poverty line is calculated.

2. While estimating the poverty line, the present formula is based on the desired calorie requirement.

3. In the urban area, the accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2100 calories per person per day and in rural areas, the accepted average calorie requirement is 2400 calorie per person per day.

The calorie requirement of the people in rural areas is higher than that of the people living in urban areas because they do more physical work as compared to urban people.


Question 2.

Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?


Answer:

No, according to me the present methodology of poverty determination is not appropriate because the present poverty estimation techniques are based on the minimum sustenance standards. The human life is far more valuable and complicated than to be weighed in the light of mere sustenance. So, the appropriation should also take into consideration important human development features like education, job security, health care etc.


Question 3.

Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.


Answer:

Poverty trends in India since 1973: