Migration : Types, Causes And Consequences Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Class 12th India People And Economy CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?

A. Education

B. Business

C. Work and employment

D. Marriage


Answer:

Work and Employment remains the largest pull factor for males from the rural to move to the urban cities of India.


Question 2.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?

A. Uttar Pradesh

B. Delhi

C. Maharashtra

D. Bihar


Answer:

Maharashtra with 2.3 Million (23 lakh) net in-migrants receives the maximum number of immigrants followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million, 26 lakh) and Bihar (-1.7 million, 17 lakh) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants among all the states.


Question 3.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?

A. Rural-rural

B. Urban-rural

C. Rural-urban

D. Urban-Urban


Answer:

Male migrants dominate the rural to urban stream of inter-state migration in India due to economic reasons.


Question 4.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share of in-migrant population?

A. Mumbai UA

B. Delhi UA

C. Bangalore UA

D. Chennai UA


Answer:

The Greater Mumbai receives the highest number of in-migrant population of all the Urban Agglomerations in India.


Question 5.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Differentiate between life-time migrant and migrant by last residence.


Answer:

A life-time migrant is one whose place of birth is different from the place of enumeration of the census. Whereas a migrant by last residence is one whose last resident is different from the place of enumeration of census.



Question 6.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

Identify the main reason for male/female selective migration.


Answer:

In India, female migration is caused by the institution of marriage which require the bride to shift to the groom’s household after marriage. Hence, female migration dominates intra-state migration.


Male members are considered the breadwinner in Indian households, while the female members are nurturers and discouraged from taking up jobs. It is the responsibility of the male members to earn and sustain the family. Hence, men dominate the rural to urban stream of inter-state migration due to economic reasons.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure of the place of origin and destination?


Answer:

An individual is like a cell in human body, she/he is the basic fundamental unit of a society. Her/his decisions can impact the composition of the society. Rural-Urban migration in India is dominated by working population (16-50 years of age), which means the rural population is more of aged individuals. Moreover, it is the male members who move to the urban areas in search of low skilled jobs, which usually is not sufficient to support moving his family to the urban area. Thus, the rural areas exhibit significantly higher sex ratio and existence of dependent population.



Question 8.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.


Answer:

Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. This create both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Key among these consequences are:


Economic Consequences


• The source regions benefit from the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are on the major sources of foreign exchange in India.


Social Consequences


• Migration leads to redistribution of the population across geographies. Age and skill selective migration results in adverse consequences for the source region, like distortion of demographic indicators (like sex ratio).


Social Change


• Migrants act as agents of social change. Through the exposure to foreign cultures, they are introduced to many progressive ideas, believes and technology.


Environmental Consequences


• Overcrowding of people due to international migration puts pressure on existing infrastructure, which ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlements and formation of slums shanty colonies. It also leads to the depletion of natural resources due to over-exploitation.


The negative effects of international migrations are often overlooked in the face of the positives. However, it is the negatives that determine the long-term stability of both the source and destination areas.



Question 9.

Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

What are the socio demographic consequences of migration?


Answer:

Migration can never be considered in isolation; it is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. When an individual or a family relocates, it has indirect effect on the many variables of society and demography. As a first, it leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. This means certain regions end up with more people than it can handle, whereas certain other places sustain itself with far lesser number of people. Thus, without effective policy intervention by the Government, regions with greater opportunities gets too many migrants while the region with lesser population remains untouched by developmental activities, lacking proper infrastructural facilities. Moreover, migration renders serious imbalances in the sex ration in both the origin and destination of migrants. Unchecked migration can lead to over-crowding, which puts pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas. This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums. In addition, due to over-exploitation of natural resources, many urban cities are facing acute problems of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid waste. From an individual’s perspective, migration is beneficial as leads to an improved standard of living, whereas from a larger societal perspective unchecked and unplanned migration is a cause of worry. The Government of the land has to find reasons for out-migration and create opportunities to minimise it.


On a side note: Why had Sundar Pichai gone to the U.S.? Why couldn’t he complete his education here and lead to Google-like company here? Why is there an influx of migrants to the Europe?


Migration is not that bad, from an evolutionary perspective. Early humans migrated in search of livelihood and had mixed with other groups of people. Our DNA is a pool of genetic materials, thanks to this mixing of early migrants. Populations should intermix for natural selection to happen, but the current artificial migration (like forced, either directly or indirectly) is creating undue stresses on the natural resources, which is unhealthy if we are looking for long-term sustainability.


PDF FILE TO YOUR EMAIL IMMEDIATELY PURCHASE NOTES & PAPER SOLUTION. @ Rs. 50/- each (GST extra)

HINDI ENTIRE PAPER SOLUTION

MARATHI PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC MATHS II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE I PAPER SOLUTION

SSC SCIENCE II PAPER SOLUTION

SSC ENGLISH PAPER SOLUTION

SSC & HSC ENGLISH WRITING SKILL

HSC ACCOUNTS NOTES

HSC OCM NOTES

HSC ECONOMICS NOTES

HSC SECRETARIAL PRACTICE NOTES

2019 Board Paper Solution

HSC ENGLISH SET A 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET B 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET C 2019 21st February, 2019

HSC ENGLISH SET D 2019 21st February, 2019

SECRETARIAL PRACTICE (S.P) 2019 25th February, 2019

HSC XII PHYSICS 2019 25th February, 2019

CHEMISTRY XII HSC SOLUTION 27th, February, 2019

OCM PAPER SOLUTION 2019 27th, February, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION COMMERCE, 2nd March, 2019

HSC MATHS PAPER SOLUTION SCIENCE 2nd, March, 2019

SSC ENGLISH STD 10 5TH MARCH, 2019.

HSC XII ACCOUNTS 2019 6th March, 2019

HSC XII BIOLOGY 2019 6TH March, 2019

HSC XII ECONOMICS 9Th March 2019

SSC Maths I March 2019 Solution 10th Standard11th, March, 2019

SSC MATHS II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD.13th March, 2019

SSC SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 15th March, 2019.

SSC SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION 10TH STD. 18th March, 2019.

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE I MARCH 2019 SOLUTION20th March, 2019

SSC SOCIAL SCIENCE II MARCH 2019 SOLUTION, 22nd March, 2019

XII CBSE - BOARD - MARCH - 2019 ENGLISH - QP + SOLUTIONS, 2nd March, 2019

HSC Maharashtra Board Papers 2020

(Std 12th English Medium)

HSC ECONOMICS MARCH 2020

HSC OCM MARCH 2020

HSC ACCOUNTS MARCH 2020

HSC S.P. MARCH 2020

HSC ENGLISH MARCH 2020

HSC HINDI MARCH 2020

HSC MARATHI MARCH 2020

HSC MATHS MARCH 2020

SSC Maharashtra Board Papers 2020

(Std 10th English Medium)

English MARCH 2020

HindI MARCH 2020

Hindi (Composite) MARCH 2020

Marathi MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 2) MARCH 2020

Sanskrit MARCH 2020

Sanskrit (Composite) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 2)

MUST REMEMBER THINGS on the day of Exam

Are you prepared? for English Grammar in Board Exam.

Paper Presentation In Board Exam

How to Score Good Marks in SSC Board Exams

Tips To Score More Than 90% Marks In 12th Board Exam

How to write English exams?

How to prepare for board exam when less time is left

How to memorise what you learn for board exam

No. 1 Simple Hack, you can try out, in preparing for Board Exam

How to Study for CBSE Class 10 Board Exams Subject Wise Tips?

JEE Main 2020 Registration Process – Exam Pattern & Important Dates

NEET UG 2020 Registration Process Exam Pattern & Important Dates

How can One Prepare for two Competitive Exams at the same time?

8 Proven Tips to Handle Anxiety before Exams!