Development Class 10th Understanding Economic Development CBSE Solution

Class 10th Understanding Economic Development CBSE Solution
Let's Work These Out-pg-6
  1. Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following…
  2. Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer. People have different…
  3. Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.…
  4. Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words.…
Let's Work These Out-pg-7
  1. Look at the picture on the right. What should be the developmental goals for such an area?…
  2. Read the newspaper report and answer the questions that follow: A vessel dumped 500 tonnes…
  3. What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality?…
Let's Work These Out-pg-9
  1. Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.…
  2. Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.…
  3. Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing…
  4. Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a…
  5. From the text, find out the per capita income level of middle-income countries as per WDR…
  6. Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a…
Let's Work These Out-pg-12
  1. Look at data in Tables 1.3 and 1.4. Is Punjab ahead of Bihar in literacy rate etc. as it…
  2. Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than…
  3. Does availability of good health educational facilities depend only on amount of money…
  4. In Tamil Nadu, 75% of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in…
Exercises
  1. Development of a country can generally be determined byA. its per capita income B. its…
  2. Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human…
  3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these…
  4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What…
  5. In what respect in the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from…
  6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own…
  7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab.…
  8. Find out the present source of energy that is used by the people of India. What could be…
  9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
  10. The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the…
  11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.…
  12. For each of the items given below in the Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top…
  13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based in…

Let's Work These Out-pg-6
Question 1.

Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.


Answer:

The argument in favor of above mentioned statement is that people are different and the second one is life situations of persons are different so second one is more important about different notions of development for different people.

The development or growth of a person totally depends on the situation around him.

A person living in a village and there is no accessibility of road then construction of roads would be needed to develop that area. If a person is living in a metro city and finds difficulty to commute his workplace then the construction of rapid transit system would be the need in that area and for that person.


Question 2.

Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer.

People have different developmental goals.

People have conflicting developmental goals.


Answer:

Both the statements are true but differ in meaning. People may have different goals but it is not necessary that their path will be conflicting and the same as well.

For example: If a flyover is being constructed to reduce the waiting time at the railway station then it is the development goal for the person working at office. But by demolishing the necessities of slum by constructing can be contradictory for the slum dwellers.



Question 3.

Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.


Answer:

Money is one of the other factors which is more important for fulfilling the basic requirements of life but it is not the sole factor which should be termed superior. Because good income will be useless if a person does not have the capacity or is not capable to move even here and there because of health issues. So, health as well as money is important. We can also say that both are complimentary. Not only this if good schools are not available in the neighborhood then it is difficult to provide education to the children so that the can be able to spend their money earned at right place at right time.



Question 4.

Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words.


Answer:

The above section is completely based on income and other different goals of people. Everyone has its own goal but besides seeking more and more opportunities to earn they want freedom, respect and security as well. The main factor on which an life of a particular person is dependent is income but quality of life also matters. One cannot keep chasing materialistic things.




Let's Work These Out-pg-7
Question 1.

Look at the picture on the right. What should be the developmental goals for such an area?



Answer:

The developmental goals for such an area should be:

Availing the loan facility for poor people to make houses and toilets.


A secure ownership should be provided of the land on which they live.


Availing the services like electricity, water and sanitation.


Removing unemployment by providing more and more job opportunities.


Medical facilities and hospitals.



Question 2.

Read the newspaper report and answer the questions that follow:

A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open-air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhea etc. After a month, seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning.

A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.

(i) Who are the people who benefited and who did not?

(ii) What should be the developmental goal for this country?


Answer:

(i) the people who have dumped the toxic waste are the benefitted and the people who haven’t are not benefitted and they belonged to Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa, where people were not aware of hygiene issues and they kept committing mistakes daily and now they are suffering.

(ii) The development goals for the citizens of this country are to increase or raise their awareness towards the Pollution due to which they are getting suffered, like they don’t know about sanitation and they keep dumping tonnes of liquid toxic waste in open-air in a city that causes nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhea etc.



Question 3.

What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality?


Answer:

As we know that rural areas are very hard to improve specially where there is no literacy and no hygiene. It becomes very difficult task to convince people for any change as they are very conservative and they don’t want to accept changes rather than keep following their old and nonsense traditions. SO, if I say then many more important development goals should be there like sanitation, security, per capita income, education etc.




Let's Work These Out-pg-9
Question 1.

Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.


Answer:

Examples where an average is used for comparing situations are as follows:

a) Measuring the height of students in a class with a large number of students.


b) Collecting the data of income of people of a particular state.


c) Forest cover in a country.



Question 2.

Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.


Answer:

Average income is an important criterion for development. As we know that money is basic and most vital factor for any country as it allows its citizens to fulfill their requirements. If the average income of a country is on a higher side, then chances of development will be better, if the average income of a country is on lower side then chances of the development will be less possible.

Hence, average income is an important criterion for development.



Question 3.

Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?


Answer:

Besides the size of per capita income, there is purchasing power parity as it shows the ability of people to purchase items and their behavior too must not be ignored in this case. In comparison of two or more societies few more factors can be included like gross domestic product, infant mortality rate, distribution of income and many more things.



Question 4.

Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.


Answer:

If records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. As we know that average income of a country is a way to determine the development of a country but it does not guarantee the progress of the economy. Few examples have been seen in which clearly it was shown that there are many other factors which are important for the overall development of a particular society. Some factors are infant mortality rate and literacy rate etc.



Question 5.

From the text, find out the per capita income level of middle-income countries as per WDR 2006.


Answer:

The per capita income level of middle-income countries as per WDR 2006 is as follows:

Sri Lanka: $ 4390


India: $ 3139


Pakistan: $ 2225



Question 6.

Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.


Answer:

India is one of the most developing nations presently in the world but when we look at the figures related to Human Developement Index; India is still very far from developed nations’ list on several parameters.

India has shown great improvement on the life expectancy, infant mortality, and literacy rate in the 2011 census. There are several factors in which we have to work on, some of these are:


Lack of proper healthcare, drinking water, sanitation and nutrition especially in rural areas. India needs to develop facilities to improve on these parameters so that it can become a developed nation.




Let's Work These Out-pg-12
Question 1.

Look at data in Tables 1.3 and 1.4. Is Punjab ahead of Bihar in literacy rate etc. as it is in terms of per capita income?

Table 1.3: Per Capita Income of Select States


Table 1.4: Some Comparative Data on Maharashtra, Kerala and Bihar


Explanation of some of the terms used in this table.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.


Answer:

We can notice that Infant mortality rate is 25, 12, and 43 in different states named Maharashtra, Kerala, and Bihar respectively. Literacy rate is 82, 94 and 62 in the same states and if we talk about net attendance ratio then it is 64, 78, and 35 respectively. So, it can be said that Maharashtra is at the second number in literacy rate. Kerala is at the top in literacy rate and Bihar is very far from these two states if we compare the literacy rate.



Question 2.

Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.


Answer:

In factories where goods and services are produced at mass scale, in mining areas and in manufacturing units where also goods are produced and manufactured in bulk. So, few merchants prefer to sell their goods in wholesale and they don’t want any kind of mediator in their work and all they want is that customers should come to them and purchase goods and services from them so here both seller and buyer is benefitted in their own ways. Therefore it can be said that collective of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.



Question 3.

Does availability of good health & educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities? What other factors could be relevant?


Answer:

The availability of good health and educational facilities does not solely depend on amount of money spent rather in this case health facilities are dependent on the capabilities of the doctors and quality of medicines and quantity of staff their behavior towards patients and many more factors are there. So it would be wrong to say that it is solely dependent on money.



Question 4.

In Tamil Nadu, 75% of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in Jharkhand only 8% of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why?


Answer:

In Tamil Nadu, 75% people are living in rural areas and they use ration shop, whereas in Jharkhand only 8% of rural people are living there use a grocery store, so clearly we can see that people are doing better in Tamil Nadu as there are 75% of people are being provided the facilities by the Public Distribution System. And on the second hand people of Jharkhand are not in good condition.




Exercises
Question 1.

Development of a country can generally be determined by
A. its per capita income

B. its average literacy level

C. health status of its people

D. all of these


Answer:

Development of a country can be measured by any of these parameters. Throughout the world, health and education indicators along with income are used as a measure of development. Hence all 3 are parameter that determine the development level of a country.

Option (D) is correct


Question 2.

Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development in India?
A. Bangladesh

B. Sri Lanka

C. Nepal

D. Pakistan


Answer:

On looking our neighbor countries then we come to know that Sri Lanka is the country which has better performance than India. This country named Sri Lanka leads us in per capita income, healthcare and education and many more parameters which are used to determine and define the human development properly. Using these parameters one can easily judge the growth of its country.


Question 3.

Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs.5000. If the income of three families is Rs.4000, Rs.7000 and Rs.3000 respectively. What is the income of the fourth family?
A. Rs.7500

B. Rs.3000

C. Rs.2000

D. Rs.6000


Answer:

Average capital income = Rs 5000


Income of 1st family = Rs 4000


Income of 2nd family = Rs 7000


Income of 3rd family = Rs 3000


Income of fourth family = 


5000 = 


20000 = 14000 + x


x = 6000


Question 4.

What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?


Answer:
Criterion use by the World Bank in classifying the different countries is the per capita income method. In this method, the income of a country is divided by the total population which gives the average income of a country. 
World development report which came in 2006 states that in 2004 countries with per capita income of Rs 4,5300 or above per annum is regarded as rich and countries with per capita income is Rs 37000 or less per annum as low-income countries. 
There are various limitations to this method because of the following reasons: 

1) This method only tells us about the average income of a country but not about the unequal distribution of wealth. It does not explain the reasons for the rising gap between rich and poor. 

2) The population is the significant factor here because countries with high population will tally low level of income. 

3) Countries with high per capita income do not explain about the basic rights and facilities provided to the citizens.

Question 5.

In what respect in the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?


Answer:

UNDP is United Nation Developement Programme. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. The main difference between the UNDP and World Bank in terms of measuring development is that - the World Bank depends upon a country’s per capita income, and the UNDP uses a combination of factors like health, education and income to know about the development of a country.


Question 6.

Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.


Answer:

The use of average is to compare income because it makes comparison between countries of different sizes easily. It removes that toughness or any kind of difficulty which is faced during calculation of per capita income.

It hides the differences in the distribution of income which is its limitation. As by calculating the total income it is not possible to get the average income of total people. That is the reason that the average income of the country is being compared which is said to be the total income which is divided by its population.

Limitations of using averages are as follows:

a) It can be used for comparison and it hides disparities so it is not suitable for any country in this way.

For example- There are two countries A and B, where the per capita income may be the same

Country A: Most of the people have similar income

Country B: Few people are extremely rich while most of the people are extremely poor but the average comes out to be same as country A

So mostly people would like to live in country ‘A’ as it has more equitable distribution than country B.


b) Even though averages are useful for comparison but they hide disparities.

Example: The literacy rate of a country does not differentiate between its different states, certain states (such as Kerala) may have higher literacy rate while some may have a lower literacy rate (like Bihar) but when we take the country’s average, this difference is not visible.


Question 7.

Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.


Answer:

It can be noticed with the help of a report that Kerala with lower capita income has a better human development ranking in comparison to Punjab and to counter the inadequacy of this average, the human development Index is used.

Various factors are used by HDI for the comparison of the two states. Some of these factors are health, education, income etc. Per capita income is useful for the money index of states. So it can be easily said that the per capita income is one of the development factors and cannot be put away.



Question 8.

Find out the present source of energy that is used by the people of India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?


Answer:

The present source of energy that is used by the people of India is of various types like electricity, coal crude oil, cow dung and solar energy. If we look the possibilities of next 50 years then we can include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy etc. wind energy can be used in far more good way. All these things can be used in better way to find out the present source of energy.



Question 9.

Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?


Answer:

The issue of sustainability is important for development because of the passage of time the generation changes and with this change, society wants more and more benefits from the resources which are present in our nature. Because of the increasing needs of people of our society, things are decaying day by day and excessive use is making things worse. If the speed of using resources remains same then the available resources will be exhausted soon and our coming generation will stay deprived of all kind of needs.

The issue of sustainability is important for development because of the following reasons:


a) The growth and development should be done by keeping in mind the future usage.


b) If resources will not be sustained then our natural resources will stagnate after some time and no upcoming generation will be able to take advantage of these natural resources.


Question 10.

“The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How this statement is relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.


Answer:

“The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” This can be said that this above written statement is relevant and accurate to discuss the development issue because in our nature there are sufficient amount of resources that are required for completing or meeting the needs of our society but these resources are being exploited badly by the people. Renewable resources like groundwater can be replenished by the nature but nonrenewable resources cannot be replenished. So the role of sustainable development is very important as it can be attained by mix use of both renewable and non-renewable resources without any harm and the balance of environment must be kept in mind to fulfill the requirements of present and future generations.



Question 11.

List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.


Answer:

List of examples of environmental degradation that we have observed around us is as follows.

a) Excessive use or misuse of the natural resources is getting common now a days and it is causing the environmental degradation.

b) Because of deforestation forests are rapidly turning into plain grounds.

c) Falling level of ground water, soil erosion, water pollution, burning of fossil fuels etc. are leading towards environmental degradation.


Question 12.

For each of the items given below in the Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at bottom.


Answer:

(i) Per Capita Gross National Income in US$:

Top country: Sri Lanka


Bottom country: Nepal


(ii) Life expectancy at Birth:


Top country: Sri Lanka


Bottom Country: Myanmar and Pakistan


(iii) Literacy Rate for 15+ years population:


Top country: Sri Lanka


Bottom country: Pakistan


(iv) HDI rank in the World:


Top country: Sri Lanka


Bottom country: Nepal



Question 13.

The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based in a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.



(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.


Answer:

(i) We can clearly look and notice that both the states have different nutritional level. 22% and 19% men and women respectively are undernourished in Kerala and on the other hand in Madhya Pradesh the respective percentages of male and female that are undernourished 43% and 42%, which clearly tells that Kerala has better nourished people than Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Often it is said that there is enough amount of food present in our country that can easily complete the needs of people but still 40% of our country’s population is unnourished this is because of the wrong and unsystematic distribution of food among population which again leads to discrimination and because of which people stay unnourished.


Few states in the country ensure proper running of grocery stores and other public distribution system which benefits the weaker section of any society. Grocery stores which are under the public distribution system help the population in maintaining the nutritional status of the people by making food availability.


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