Change And Development In Industrial Society Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Questions
Question 1.

Choose any occupation you see around you – and describe it along the following lines: a) social composition of the work force – caste, gender, age, region; b) labour process – how the work takes place, c) wages and other benefits, d) working conditions – safety, rest times, working hours etc.


Answer:

Very common occupation around us in todays' society are the managerial personnel, working in the private sector industries.

1. Social composition of work force


a. Cast: It is no more a criteria in employment in private sector however the reservation very much there. This means composition on the basis of cast matters only up to the level where reservation is compulsory above that people from all caste and creed available in management in almost equal proportions.


b. Gender: The jobs requiring public dealing has a higher percentage of females as compared to the one involving technical nature of work.


c. Age: All the private organisations are trying to introduce new blood so as to make their management dynamic and progressive.


d. Region: Most positions are fulfilled by local people as compared to people from different regions, though there is no such restriction as the human resource is very much mobile in our country.


2. Labour processes


•It depends upon the nature of the industry


•If the industry is capital intensive in the major work is mechanical in nature and people are required for supervision purpose


•Whereas in labour intensive industries major part of employees is engaged in technical nature of work


3. Wages and benefit


In addition to basic wages various other benefits are allowed to employees like -


•Allowances, such as House Rent Allowance, Medical Allowance, etc


•Perquisites like rent free accommodation, motor cars, meals


•Fringe benefits like provident fund, life insurance, family health insurance, etc are also available


4. Working conditions


The working conditions are quite friendly and liberal for the employees.



Question 2.

In the account of brickmaking, bidi rolling, software engineers or mines that are described in the boxes, describe the social composition of the workers. What are the working conditions and facilities available? How do girls like Madhu feel about their work?


Answer:

Brick making

•The nature of employment was seasonal employment.


•It is for uneducated people.


•Brickyards were owned by upper caste like Parsis or Desais.


•The workers were local or migrants dalits.


•Men, women, children all were engaged in different types of work in brick making.


•The working hours extended from 10 to 14


•The children from age of 6 to adults were engaged in the work


•Young children of 6-9 years were used to work in night to carry the fresh bricks made by their father.


IT Sector


•The working hours vary from 10 to 12 per day, but it may be extended during the deadlines of project.


•It is knowledge based work, which has given a new name to our economy knowledge economy.


•It requires people with good technical and educational background.


•It offers handsome salary packages.


•Both male and female workers are engaged.


•Youth is majorly found in this sector.


•It has locals as well as migrants.


Coal mines


•Some workers are on register and some not just to avoid the responsibility for accidents and benefits.


•Working in mines is quite dangerous are there are chances of various accident and they are disease prone too.


•Men and women from local areas as well as migrants are engaged in mines.


Beedi rolling


•The workers have to sit long hours in the same poster.


•They start consuming tobacco.


•Both men and women workers are engaged, sometimes children too.


•It is quiet disease prone.


Madhu enjoyed the work as it gave her the opportunity to sit close to her mother and to listen the chat of her mother and other women around her. Along with taking part in household chores she was also enjoying filling tobacco in the rolled Tendu leaves. It gave her the opportunity to restart her education.



Question 3.

How has liberalisation affected employment patterns in India?


Answer:

The effects of liberalisation pattern in India are being discussed below –

1) The industrial policy 1991 has introduced liberalization privatization and globalisation in Indian economy.


2) The delicensing has increased the chances of self-employment.


3) Due to liberalisation foreign products are easily available in Indian market at competitive rates which has resulted in closure of many industries in India which ultimately resulted in unemployment.


4) Multinational companies are being welcomed in India.


5) Retail sector was introduced due to which many small traders, shop keepers; hand cart sellers lost their jobs.


6) Disinvestment resulted in sale of major share of government in public sector companies.


7) Companies are reducing number of permanent employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies and are encouraging work from home.


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