### Theory Of Consumer Behaviour Class 12th Introductory Microeconomics CBSE Solution

##### Question 1.What do you mean by the budget set of a consumer ?.Answer:Budget set is a set of all possible combinations of the two goods the consumer can buy from his income at given prices; the cost of these combinations is exactly equal to the income of the consumer or less than it .Now, let’s say the income of a consumer is Rs 1000 and he has to buy apples and oranges. The price per kg apple is Rs 50 and apple is Rs 20. The possible outcomes could be These set of combinations will be called budget set.The right angle triangle AOB as shown in the following figure is called budget set, it is formed between the budget line and the two axis Question 2.What is budget line?Answer:Budget line represents the different possible combinations of two goods which can be purchased by consumer with the given income and at prevailing prices and the cost of each of these combinations is equal to the income of consumer.Now, let’s say the income of a consumer is Rs 1000 and he has to buy apples and oranges. The price per kg apple is Rs 50 and apple is Rs 20. The possible outcomes could be – The combinations A, B, C, D, E will be called budgets lines.Question 3.A consumer wants to consume two goods. The prices of the two goods are Rs 4 and Rs 5 respectively. The consumer’s income is Rs 20.(i) Write down the equation of the budget line.(ii) How much of good 1 can the consumer consume if she spends her entire income on that good?(iii) How much of good 2 can she consume if she spends her entire income on that good?(iv) What is the slope of the budget line?Answer:Let the units purchased two goods beGoods 1 X andGoods 2 Y(i) Equation of the budget line – P1X + P2Y = MWhereP1 – Price of Good 1 = 4P2 – Price of Good 2 = 5M – Income of consumer = 20X – Units of Good 1Y - Units of Good 2Therefore, here the budget line will be expressed as4X + 5Y = 20(ii) How much of good 1 can the consumer consume if she spends her entire income on that good?4X + 5(0) = 20X = 5(iii) How much of good 2 can she consume if she spends her entire income on that good?4(0) + 5(Y) = 20Y = 4(iv) What is the slope of the budget line?The slope of budget line is - 4/5 = X/YX/Y = - 0.8Question 4.How does the budget line change if the consumer’s income increases to Rs 40 but the prices remain unchanged?Answer:The budget line will be expressed as4X + 5Y = 40As income has increased so the consumer can purchase more of both the commodities and the budget line will shift parallelly outwards to A’B’ from ABThe slope of new budget line will be - 4/5 = X/YX/Y = - 0.8 Question 5.How does the budget line change if the price of good 2 decreases by a rupee but the price of good 1 and the consumer’s income remain unchanged?Answer:The budget line will be expressed as4X + 4Y = 20The slope of new budget line will be - 4/4 = X/YX/Y = - 1The new budget line will also pivot outwards around the same horizontal intercept – Question 6.What happens to the budget set if both the prices as well as the income double?Answer:The budget line will be expressed as8X + 10Y = 40The new budget line will be same as old one with same slope.Question 7.Suppose a consumer can afford to buy 6 units of good 1 and 8 units of good 2 if she spends her entire income. The prices of the two goods are Rs 6 and Rs 8 respectively. How much is the consumer’s income?Answer:Budget line – P1X + P2Y = MWhere,P1 – Price of Good 1 = 6P2 – Price of Good 1 = 8M – Income of consumer = ?X – Units of Good 1 = 6Y - Units of Good 2 = 8M = (6 × 6) + (8 × 8) = 36 + 64 = 100Therefore, the income of consumer is Rs 100Question 8.Suppose a consumer wants to consume two goods which are available only in integer units. The two goods are equally priced at Rs 10 and the consumer’s income is Rs 40.(i) Write down all the bundles that are available to the consumer.(ii) Among the bundles that are available to the consumer, identify those which cost her exactly Rs 40.Answer:(i) Here, M = 40P1 = 10P2 = 10The bundles available to the consumer are –(0,0) (0,1) (0,2) (0,3) (0,4)(1,0) (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (2,0)(2,1) (2,2) (3,0) (3,1) (4,0)(ii) The bundles available in this case are  Question 9.What do you mean by ‘monotonic preferences’?Answer:Monotonic preference means that rational consumer always prefers to have more of a commodity because it will give him a higher level of satisfaction.More is preferred to less. When preferences are monotone, the consumer prefers more of both the goods. When preferences are strictly monotone the consumer preferes more of one good but not less of the other.Therefore, a consumer will prefer a particular bundle if it will have at least more of one good but not less of the other goodIf we say that bundle A has 3 units of community X and 5 units of commodity Y, where bundle B has 3 units of community X but only 2 units of commodity Y, then the consumer will prefer bundle A, because he is getting the same quantity of commodity B in both bundles but more of commodity Y in bundle A.Question 10.If a consumer has monotonic preferences, can she be indifferent between the bundles (10, 8) and (8, 6)?Answer:A consumer having monotonic preference cannot be indifferent between two given bundle because bundle 1 contains more of goods as compared to bundle 2.So she should prefer bundle 1.Question 11.Suppose a consumer’s preferences are monotonic. What can you say about her preference ranking over the bundles (10, 10), (10, 9) and (9, 9)?Answer:As per monotonic preference, the bundles should be ranked as below – Question 12.Suppose your friend is indifferent to the bundles (5, 6) and (6, 6). Are the preferences of your friend monotonic?Answer:In the given case it shows that the preference of my friend is not monotonic. As he is indifferent towards both the bundles means both the bundles give him same level of satisfaction and so he has assigned them the same rank.According to the monotonic preference second bundle would have been preferred as it contains more of both the goods.Question 13.Suppose there are two consumers in the market for a good and their demand functions are as follows:d1(p) = 20 – p for any price less than or equal to 20, and d1(p) = 0 at any price greater than 20.d2(p) = 30 – 2p for any price less than or equal to 15 and d1(p) = 0 at any price greater than 15.Find out the market demand function.Answer:d1(p) = 20 – p for any price less than or equal to 20, and d1(p) = 0 at any price greater than 20.For Price ≤ 20Market Demand = 2 (20 – p)= 40 – 2pFor Price > 20Market Demand = 2 (0)= 0Therefore, market demand function is40 – 2p if Price ≤ 200 if Price > 20d2(p) = 30 – 2p for any price less than or equal to 15 and d1(p) = 0 at any price greater than 15.For Price ≤ 15Market Demand = 2 (30 – 2p)= 60 – 4pFor Price > 15Market Demand = 2 (0)= 0Therefore, market demand function is60 – 4p if Price ≤ 150 if Price > 15Question 14.Suppose there are 20 consumers for a good and they have identical demand functions:d(p) = 10 – 3p for any price less than or equal to 10/3 and d1(p) = 0 at any price greater than 10/3.What is the market demand function?Answer:d(p) = 10 – 3p if Price ≤ 10/3d1(p) = 0 if Price > 10/3Market Demand is total demand of all consumersFor Price ≤ 10/3Market Demand = 20 (10 – 3p)= 200 – 60pFor Price > 10/3Market Demand = 20 (0)= 0Therefore, market demand function is200 – 60p if Price ≤ 10/30 if Price > 10/3Question 15.Consider a market where there are just two consumers and suppose their demands for the good are given as follows:Calculate the market demand for the good. Answer:Market Demand is total demand i.e d1 + d2 Question 16.What do you mean by a normal good?Answer:A good having inverse relationship with price but direct relationship with income is called Normal goods. The demand for normal good increases with increase in income and decreases with rise in price.  Question 17.What do you mean by an ‘inferior good’? Give some examples.Answer:A good having direct relationship with price but inverse relationship with income is called inferior goods. The demand for inferior good increases with increase in price and decreases with rise in income.  Question 18.What do you mean by substitutes? Give examples of two goods which are substitutes of each other.Answer:Substitute goods means the goods that can replace the other like tea and coffee. If the price for tea will increase (no change in price of coffee), the demand for tea will decrease and people will substitute coffee for tea. Therefore we can say that demand for substitute goods move in the same direction with price. If the price of a commodity increases the demand for it substitute will also increase. Question 19.What do you mean by complements? Give examples of two goods which are complements of each other.Answer:The goods that are consumed together are called complementary goods like pen and refill, car and petrol etc. In case of complementary goods the rise in price of one commodity affects the demand of another.Like if the price of petrol will increase the demand for cars will decrease Therefore the demand for complementary goods move in opposite direction to the price so they are inversely related. Question 20.Explain price elasticity of demand.Answer:Price elasticity of demand is the measure of the degree of responsiveness of the demand for a good to the change in its price. The price elasticity of demand can be defined as the change in the demand of a particular commodity due to the change in its price.According to Lipsey - "Price elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage of change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price." WhereEd – Elasticity of demandProportionate change in quantity demanded = (q1-q0)/q0Proportionate change in price = (p1-p0)/p0Question 21.Consider the demand for a good. At price Rs 4, the demand for the good is 25 units. Suppose price of the good increases to Rs 5, and as a result, the demand for the good falls to 20 units. Calculate the price elasticity.Answer: = - 0.20/0.25= - 0.8Therefore, Ed <1Proportionate change in quantity demanded = (q1-q0)/q0 = -0.20Proportionate change in price = (p1-p0)/p0 = 0.25q0 = 25q1 = 20p0 = 4p1 = 5Question 22.Consider the demand curve D (p) = 10 – 3p. What is the elasticity at price 5/3?Answer:D(p) = 10 – 3pThis implies Δq/Δp = -3At p = 5/3q will be = 10 – (3x5/3) = 5Ed = Δq/Δp X p/q = -1Question 23.Suppose the price elasticity of demand for a good is – 0.2. If there is a 5 % increase in the price of the good, by what percentage will the demand for the good go down?Answer:Price elasticity of demand = -0.2Increase in price – 5%  % Change in Quantity demanded = -0.2 X 5 = -1%Question 24.Suppose the price elasticity of demand for a good is – 0.2. How will the expenditure on the good be affected if there is a 10 % increase in the price of the good?Answer:Price elasticity of demand = -0.2Increase in price – 10%The price elasticity is less than 1 so demand is inelastic. In this case the increase in price will result in increase in expenditure. In case on inelastic demand the price and expenditure are positively related.Question 25.Suppose there was a 4 % decrease in the price of a good, and as a result, the expenditure on the good increased by 2 %. What can you say about the elasticity of demand?Answer:Decrease in price is 4% whereas increase in expenditure is 2%The percentage change in price is more than the percentage change in expenditure, which means the percentage change in demand is more than the percentage change in price.This means the elasticity is more than 1, thus demand is elastic.

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