The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10th India And The Contemporary World Ii CBSE Solution

Class 10th India And The Contemporary World Ii CBSE Solution

Write In Brief
Question 1.

Write a note:

Giuseppe Mazzini


Answer:

Giuseppe Mazzini



Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Geneva on June 22nd, 1807 in a middle class family. He was a patriot, political activist, writer, founder of young Italy and played very important role in liberal nationalism who strived to found a unified democratic republic of Italy. 
1. He was one of the three revolutionaries who made a significant contribution to Italian unification. 
2. His efforts led to the unification of Italy. 
3. He believed in a single unified republic instead of being a patchwork of small state kingdoms.
4. In 1831, at the age of 24, he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. 
5. He founded underground societies like Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne. 
6. He was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly and acquired the responsibilities of framing a constitution for the Roman public.


Question 2.

Write a note:

Count Camillo de Cavour


Answer:

Count Camillo de Cavour



Count Camillo de Cavour, a political leader and an Italian statesman, premier of the Kingdom of Sardini. He was born at Turin on the August 1, 1810. He was the active force behind King Victor Emmanuel II, he was responsible more than any other man for the unification of Italy under the house of Savoy. Of a noble Piedmontese family, he entered the army at the age of 10 but came under suspicion for his liberal ideas and was forced to resign in 1831. He then devoted himself to travel, agricultural experimentation, and the study of politics. He was a significant figure in the movement towards Italian unification and the founder of the original Italian liberal party. Cavour was a liberal and had faith in free trade, public right of opinion and secular rule. So on becoming the Prime Minister of Piedmont –Sardinia on November 4, 1852 Cavour strengthened the kingdom, reform taxation, stabilized the currency, and the improved the railway system. In 1853, He supported the French and British in the Crimean War with troops, in anticipation to enhance the prestige of Piedmont-Sardinia. He engineered a tactful diplomatic alliance with France which helped Sardinia piedmont in defeated Austrian force in 1859. Count Camillo de Cavour made considerable efforts of the creation of modern Italian state. But unfortunately he died only three months after the declaration of a united Italy on June 6, 1861.



Question 3.

Write a note:

The Greek War of independence


Answer:

The Greek War of independence


It’s an event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.



Question 4.

Write a note:

Frankfurt Parliament


Answer:

Frankfurt Parliament


In 1848, Germany was a divided country with different provinces like Australia and Prussia. In February 1848, when a rebellion took place in Paris King Louis Philippe was forced to ran away and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The German middle class decided to vote for an all - German National Assembly and hence came to Frankfurt. It was attended by 831 people. The parliament was convened on 18th May 1848 in St. Paul church. Friedrich Wilhelm IV was elected as the president but it turned out to be futile due to lack of experience of the deputies. The assembly decided that the German nation would be a monarchy controlled by Parliament. Instead of setting up a central power in German people. However, the assembly continued its work and completed a Constitution. The parliament faced strong opposition from aristocracy and military. In the end monarchy and military combined together with the aristocracy, they won over the liberal nationalist middle class and the assembly was forced to disband. Frankfurt Parliament is famous as a failure of liberalism and victory of the monarchy.


Question 5.

Write a note:

The role of women in nationalist struggles.


Answer:

The role of women in nationalist struggles.


Women played a very important role in nationalist struggles all over the world. They participated equally mostly in every movements. They faced torture of police but still they stood by their male counterparts. A large number of women participated actively in the political matters over the year. Sometimes they led the movements also, formed many political associations, founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations. The most famous example is the French revolution where women participated equally as men. Liberty is personified as a women and also liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. So, on 18 May 1848, when the Constitution was drafted in the Frankfurt Parliament the controversial issue of the extending political rights to women was raised. Still women were deprived of suffrage during the election of the assembly and they were admitted in the Frankfurt Parliament Assembly only as spectators. But this did not diminish their contribution to the national struggle. Delphine De Girardin, an educated woman, criticized by saying that if servants doing the household work were granted the right to vote then why not women who are mothers, housewives managing everything at home. Women were given little or no political rights, right to vote etc. till the end of 19th century.



Question 6.

What steps did the French revolutionary take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Or

When did the first clear cut expression of the nationalism come in France? How did the French Revolution lead to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens? Explain any four measures taken by the French revolutionaries.

Or

Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.


Answer:

The first clear cut expression of the nationalism came in the French with the French revolution 1789. To make the revolution a success it was very important to install a sense of utility in every citizen.


To achieve it, various measures and practices were followed –


(i) The idea of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the nation of the united community enjoying the equal rights under a Constitution. A new French Flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the farmer royal standard.


(ii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and new hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.


(iii) They established a centralized administrative system, which formulated uniform laws for all citizens. Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.


(iv) French language was promoted above all the regional languages.



Question 7.

Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they are portrayed?

Or

How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse.


Answer:

In old times the best way to invite people’s attention was to present an idea through symbolic personifications. Form 1789 females appeared in paintings as symbol of liberty and revolution. Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, and a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty. She was the female figure invented by artist in the nineteenth century to present the French nation. Her profile stands out on the official government logo of the country, is engraved on French euro coins and appears on French postage stamps; it also was featured on the former French currency. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the republic – the red cap, the tricolor, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public places to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identity with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.


Similarly, Germania becomes the symbol of the German nation. This work was done by the artist Philip Veit. He depicted Germania as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shone through the tricolor fabric of the national flag. Germania was a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism. It was hung from the ceiling of St Paul's Church, where the Frankfurt parliament was convened, to symbolize the liberal revolution.



Question 8.

Briefly trace the process of German Unification.

Or

Examine the main features of the process of German unification under the leadership of Otto Von Bismark.


Answer:

The Frankfurt parliament was the first step of German unification but this initiative of nation building was repressed by the monarchy and big landlords of Prussia. German unification was a long and complicated process. In the beginning of the 19th century, German was not a unified country. It was a collection of 39 autocratic states, ruled by only wealthy and powerful once. It was a difficult affair to unite Germany. The credit of unifying Germany goes to Bismark as He fought three wars to unified Germany.


(i) Danish- Prussian War in 1864: In beginning many European royals were independently having undersized territories dived by different laws, custom, and languages. When the Danish King Friedrich VII died in 1864.The Danish War helped Bismark strengthen his internal position in Prussia. Without much effort, Prussia defeated Danish.


(ii) Austro- Prussian War in 1866: In 1864 Bismark constructed an alliance with Austria to fight with Denmark. After the defeat Prussia received Schleswig and Austria administered the Holstein. But this situation could not stand for long and relations between Australia and Prussia worsened over the control of Schleswig-Holstein. As the real concern was to emerge as the dominant force in German, Bismark provoked war with the Austrians to gain supremacy in Germany. He tactfully secured Italian support and French neutrality. Prussian troops occupied Holstein the Seven Weeks War (1866), Austria was totally crushed by Prussian forces at the battle of Sadowa, and was completely removed from any involvement in German affairs. An extraordinary lenient treaty, the Treaty of Prague was signed to expel Austria from the German Confederation so that Austria did not remain an enemy of Prussia. Prussia was now able to dominate the other German states without fear of Austria intervention.


(iii)Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71: With Austria out of the Bismark’s way and to complete German unification process Bismark now had only one hurdle, and that was France. The southern provinces doubted Prussia’s commitment to unite the Germany of all provinces. Prussia’s Protestantism and historic militarism made the gulf between north and south quite serious. Therefore Bismark turned raelpolitik to unite the Germanic provinces by constructing a war against the common enemy. In 1870, Bismark forged a note from French ambassador implying that the ambassador had insulted the Prussian king. He also suggested a German candidate’s name for the vacant Spanish throne. the hidden aim behind this move was to provoke the people of France & Prussia and make the French emperor Napolean III angry and declare war on Prussia and the North German Confederation. Prussia was completely victorious over France at the battle of Sedan in 1870 and gained control over Alsace-Lorraine.


For unification Bismark followed ‘Blood and Iron’ policy. Thus, the long planned journey of German unification was completed in 1871.



Question 9.

What changes did Napolean introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?


Answer:

Though Napolean Bonaparte was a dictator and was against democracy but he took certain measures to smoothly and proficiently run the administrative system. He


(i) Simple Administration: Napolean initiated reform drive in the French legal system because the old feudal and royal laws were very confusing and conflicting to the people. He simplified the administrative divisions of France.


(ii) The Napolean Code of 1804: the main concern of the code was related to property, colonial affairs, the family, and individual rights. It was a major step in establishing the rule of law. This Code was exported to the regions under French control.


(iii) Abolishment of privileges: The privileges on the bases of birth, and feudalism systems were abolished, and freed the peasantry from serfdom and manorial dues. The quality before the law was established and the right to the property was secured.


(iv) Infrastructural improvement: Transportation facilities and communication systems were improved.


(v) Uniform laws: uniform laws were adopted for all whether it’s a businessman or a small – scale producer of goods – all began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilities the movement and exchange of, goods and capital from one region to another.




Discuss
Question 1.

Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolutions of liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?


Answer:

The word ‘Liberal’ is derived from the Latin ‘liber’ that means ‘free’. So 1848 revolution meant the revolution led by the educated middle classes alongside the revolts of the poor, unemployed peasant and workers of Europe. Liberalism emphasizes on absolute and unrestrained freedom of thoughts, religion, conscience, creed, speech, press, and politics. Liberals believed that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, not to pose a threat to liberty.

In the nineteenth century, a series of republican revolts started against European monarchies. In countries like France, unemployment and shortage of food, triggered the movements on a large scale. In other parts of Europe, men and women of the liberal middle class, came together to raise their voice for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles and frankfurt parliament is the example of revolution of liberals.

In the economic field

(i) Interference of state in the economic life: Liberal in the 19th century urged to end the interference of the state in the economic life of society.

(ii) Freedom of markets: They fought for the freedom of markets and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

(iii) Unification: In 1834, a Custom union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.

(iii) The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.

(iv) Infrastructural Improvement: The construction of a network of railways stirred economic growth and economic nationalism which eventually strengthened nationalism.

In the political field

(i) The main aim was to establish freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law and government should be formed with the consent of people.

(ii) it was against the class-based partiality and birthrights.

(iii) It opposed autocracy and clerical privileges and favoured a Constitution with national unification and representative government through Parliament.

(iv) The Napolean Code was related to property, colonial affairs, individual rights and reduced women’s role.

(v) Women were considered as the subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. This led to the rise of movement by women and non-propertied men demanding equal political rights.


Question 2.

Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of the nationalism in Europe.

Or

How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalism sentiments during 18th century? Explain.

Or

How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe?

Or

“Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe during 18th and 19th centuries.” Support the statement with the example.


Answer:

Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:
(i) Romanticism was a European cultural movement aimed at developing national unity by creating a sense of shared heritage and common history. The Romantic artists' emphasis on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings gave shape and expression to nationalist sentiments. The strength of art in promoting nationalism is well exemplified in the role played by European poets and artists in mobilizing public opinion to support the Greeks in their struggle to establish their national identity.
(ii) Folk songs, dances and poetry contributed to popularizing the spirit of nationalism and patriotic favor in Europe. Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk culture enabled nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and diverse audience.
Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important for building a national consciousness.
(iii) Language also played a distinctive role in developing nationalist feelings in Europe. The emphasis on the use of vernacular language, the language of the masses, helped spread the message of national unity. During Russian occupation period, Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. Following the defeat of an armed rebellion against Russian rule in 1831, many members of the clergy in Poland began using language as a weapon of national resistance. They did so by refusing to preach in Russian, and by using Polish for Church gatherings and religious instruction.



Question 3.

Through a focus on any three countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.


Answer:

(1) Germany:


The Frankfurt parliament was the first step of German unification but this initiative of nation building was repressed by the monarchy and big landlords of Prussia. German unification was a long and complicated process. In the beginning of the 19th century, German was not a unified country. It was a collection of 39 autocratic states, ruled by only wealthy and powerful once. It was a difficult affair to unite Germany. The credit of unifying Germany goes to Bismark as He fought three wars to unified Germany.


(i) Danish- Prussian War in 1864: In beginning many European royals were independently having undersized territories dived by different laws, custom, and languages. When the Danish King Friedrich VII died in 1864.The Danish War helped Bismark strengthen his internal position in Prussia. Without much effort, Prussia defeated Danish.


(ii) Austro- Prussian War in 1866: In 1864 Bismark constructed an alliance with Austria to fight with Denmark. After the defeat Prussia received Schleswig and Austria administered the Holstein. But this situation could not stand for long and relations between Australia and Prussia worsened over the control of Schleswig-Holstein. Prussian troops occupied Holstein the Seven Weeks War (1866), Austria was totally crushed by Prussian forces at the battle of Sadowa, and was completely removed from any involvement in German affairs. An extraordinary lenient treaty, the Treaty of Prague was signed to expel Austria from the German Confederation so that Austria did not remain an enemy of Prussia. Prussia was now able to dominate the other German states without fear of Austria intervention.


(iii) Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71: With Austria out of the Bismark’s way and to complete German unification process Bismark now had only one hurdle, and that was France. The southern provinces doubted Prussia’s commitment to unite the Germany of all provinces. Prussia’s Protestantism and historic militarism made the gulf between north and south quite serious. Therefore Bismark turned raelpolitik to unite the Germanic provinces by constructing a war against the common enemy. Prussia was completely victorious over France at the battle of Sedan in 1870 and gained control over Alsace-Lorraine.


For unification Bismark followed ‘Blood and Iron’ policy. Thus, the long planned journey of German unification was completed in 1871.


(2) Greek


The Greek War of independence


It’s an event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.


(3) Italy:


For unification of Italy Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillo de Cavour played very important role. They both helped in the development of the nation.


Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Geneva on June 22nd, 1807 in a middle class family. He was a patriot, political activist, writer, founder of young Italy and played very important role in liberal nationalism who strived to found a unified democratic republic of Italy. He was one of the three revolutionaries who made a significant contribution in Italian unification. His efforts led to the unification of Italy. He believed in single unified republic instead of being a patchwork of small state kingdoms so in 1830, he joined the revolutionary Carbonari (a Young Italy), whose basic principle was the union of the several states and kingdoms into one republic. In 1831, at the age of 24 he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded underground societies like Young Italy in Marseilles, and Young Europe in Berne. To evoke people’s reaction Mazzini wrote several essays that voiced the injustice to the working class such as the peasants, professionals, artist, and intellectuals. He was elected as a member of Constituent Assembly and acquired the responsibilities of framing a constitution for the roman public.


Count Camillo de Cavour, a political leader and an Italian statesman, premier of the Kingdom of Sardini. He was born at Turin on the August 1, 1810. He was the active force behind King Victor Emmanuel II, he was responsible more than any other man for the unification of Italy under the house of Savoy. Of a noble Piedmontese family, he entered the army at the age of 10 but came under suspicion for his liberal ideas and was forced to resign in 1831. He then devoted himself to travel, agricultural experimentation, and the study of politics. He was a significant figure in the movement towards Italian unification and the founder of the original Italian liberal party. Cavour was a liberal and had faith in free trade, public right of opinion and secular rule. So on becoming the Prime Minister of Piedmont –Sardinia on November 4, 1852 Cavour strengthened the kingdom, reform taxation, stabilized the currency, and the improved the railway system. In 1853, He supported the French and British in the Crimean War with troops, in anticipation to enhance the prestige of Piedmont-Sardinia. He engineered a tactful diplomatic alliance with France which helped Sardinia piedmont in defeated Austrian force in 1859. Count Camillo de Cavour made considerable efforts of the creation of modern Italian state. But unfortunately he died only three months after the declaration of a united Italy on June 6, 1861.



Question 4.

How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?


Answer:

Nationalism in Europe developed after the powerful revolutions, wars and military campaigns.


But Britain was exception as there were no wars for nationalism actually before the eighteenth century there was no British nation. The people of different identities lived in the British and were called ethnic ones. The ethnic group comprised English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. These groups had their own culture and political traditions. But slowly and steadily English nation grew in power and extended its influence over the other nations of the island.


In 1707 England united with the Scotland and started to dominant the nation. After Scotland English people united with Irish and resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ without any war or bloodshed.


This gave power to the England to impose its influence on other ethnic peoples. This led to the demolition of Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions. The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.


The condition of Ireland was not different from Scotland. The country was divided between Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their supremacy over Catholics. Catholics revolted but were soon suppressed and Ireland was forcibly included into the United Kingdom in 1801. This amalgamation led to the growth of new, powerful nation ‘British nation’. The symbols of the new Britain like the British flag (Union Jack, the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language were actively promoted. In the light of the above, we can say that the history of nationalism in Britain was completely unlike that of the rest of Europe.



Question 5.

Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Or

“The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.” Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century?


Answer:

The nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans because of these reasons:


(i)Geographically and ethically diverse region : The Balkans consisted of regions of modern day Romania , Bulgaria , Albania , Greece , Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro and their inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs was geographically and ethically diverse region compare to modern day.


(ii) When the ottoman Empire collapsed, It initiated nationalism in the Balkans states. Soon the feeling of nationalism spread and the situation became very unstable. The ottoman Empire tried to control the situation by strengthening itself through modernization and internal reforms but fails to do it.


(iii) Gradually, its European nations got separated and fought for independence and political rights.


(iv) In the race to expand their territories and to impose their supremacy on each other, Slavic nationalities quickly got into severe clashes. As a result, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.


(v) During this period there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might.


(vi) These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power –Russia, Germany, England, Austria, Hungary was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to continued series of wars in the region and finally, the First World war broke out in 1914.


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