The Cold War Era Class 12th Contemporary World Politics CBSE Solution

Class 12th Contemporary World Politics CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Which among the following statements about the Cold War is wrong?

a) It was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.

b) It was an ideological war between the superpowers.

c) It triggered off an arms race.

d) the US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.


Answer:

the US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.


a) Correct statement. After the WWII the United States and USSR emerged as two superpowers with the ability to influence events anywhere in the world


b) Correct statement. US represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance headed by the Soviet union was committed to the ideology of sociology and communism


c) Correct statement. WWII caused lot of destruction, loss of lives none was in a state of bearing any further loss, so the arms race were kept at bay


d) Wrong Statement. US and USSR were not engaged in direct wars as both the superpowers were not in a state to handle the destructions caused by nuclear weapons therefore the intense form of rivalry between great powers remained cold



Question 2.

Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM

a) Enabling newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies

b) No to joining any military alliances

c) Following a policy of ‘neutrality’ on global issues

d) Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities


Answer:

Following a policy of ‘neutrality’ on global issues


Neutrality refers principally to a policy of staying out of war. States practising neutrality are not required to help end war. Non aligned states, including India, were actually involved in wars to prevent war between others.


Rest options are the objectives of NAM



Question 3.

Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features of the military alliances formed by the superpowers.

a) Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for the superpowers.

b) Member countries to support the superpower both in terms of ideology and military strategy.

c) When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.

d) Superpowers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.


Answer:

a) Correct Factual


b) Correct Factual


c) Correct Factual


d) Wrong



Question 4.

Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these the bloc they belonged to during the Cold War.

a) Poland

b) France

c) Japan

d) Nigeria

e) North Korea

f) Sri Lanka


Answer:

a) Poland – Eastern alliance


b) France –Western Alliance


c) Japan-western Alliance


d) Nigeria-NAM


e) North Korea-Eastern Alliance


f) Sri Lanka-NAM




Question 5.

The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?


Answer:

The cold war did not end the rivalries but the mutual suspicion led them to be alarmed of any sudden war. Huge stocks of arms were piled up and were considered safe to prevent wars from taking place. This was known as arms race.


The reasons that led to produce arms race as well as arms control were :


1. The two superpowers and the countries in rival blocs were expected to behave rational and responsible in the sense that they understood the risk in fighting which will be massively destructive


2. The rivals speculated that if the war happened then there would be no winner as it would cause loss for both the rivals, so eventually US and USSR, decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non nuclear weapons. A stable balance of weapons could be maintained through arms control.


Then significant agreements like Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Proliferation Treaty and Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty were signed.



Question 6.

Why did the superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons.


Answer:

The superpowers had military alliance with smaller countries due to following reasons :


1. Vital Resources, such as Oil and minerals


2. Territory, from where superpower could launch their weapons and troops


3. Location, from where they could spy on each other



Question 7.

Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.


Answer:

No, I don’t agree with the said statement.


• The Cold war was not simply the matter of power rivalries, of military alliances, and of the balance of power.


• These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well. The western alliance headed by US represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the Eastern alliance headed by the Soviet Union was committed to the ideology of Socialism and Communism.


Example:


Superpowers needed support of smaller allies, but not just for vital resources or for economic support, They were also important for ideological reasons. The loyalty of allies suggested that the superpowers were winning the war of ideas as well that the liberal democracy was better than communism or vice versa.



Question 8.

What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?


Answer:

India was neither negative nor passive towards US and USSR during cold war.


• Despite being key founder of NAM India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften the Cold war rivalries.


• India’s response towards cold ear was two-fold, at one fold it kept itself at bay from the two alliances and at second it raised it’s voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.


• India tried to reduce differences and thereby prevent differences from escalating into war


• Nehru from India reposed great faith in a genuine commonwealth of free and cooperating nations that would act positively in softening if not ending the war.


Yes, this policy of India did helped towards its interest.


• This policy of India towards US and USSR helped India in taking international decision. India was often able to balance one superpower towards another.



Question 9.

NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by Third World countries. How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?


Answer:

The cold war tended to divide world into two rival alliances, it was then that the Non Aligned Movement offered the newly decolonised countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America a third option i.e. not to join any alliance.


The idea of New International Economic Order (NIEO) benefited the decolonised countries.


1. It gave the least developed countries to control over their natural resources exploited by the Western countries.


2. It obtains access to western Market so that LDC s could sell their products and therefore make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.


3. It reduce the cost of technology from the western countries


4. It also provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institution


Thus the third option helped the new decolonised countries.



Question 10.

What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today. Give reason to support your opinion.


Answer:

No, I don’t think NAM has become irrelevant in today’s world.


• With the disintegration of the USSR and the end of cold war in 1991, non alignment, both as an international movement and as the core of India’s Foreign Policy, lost some earlier relevance and effectiveness.


• However, non alignment retained some core values and enduring idea, after the end of cold war it started giving more importance to economic ideas.


• Non-Alignment has not lost any of its relevance rather it has stood the test of time. It has served the useful purpose of protecting and preserving the interest of the Third World countries well in the past, so it is also expected to serve their interest well in the future to come.


• NAM can play the most important role in protecting the economic interest of the Third World countries as well as promoting south-south cooperation. Thus the philosophy of NAM is as relevant as ever for the Third World.


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