Structural Change Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Questions
Question 1.

How has colonialism impacted our lives? You can either focus on one aspect like culture or politics or treat them together.


Answer:

The colonial experience is quite significant for understanding modern India not only because the modern ideas and Institutions reached India through colonialism but also because the exposure to such modern ideas are self-contradictory. The colonialism has affected almost all the spheres of Indian society. The political and cultural impact of colonialism in India is being discussed below -


1. Our parliamentary system, legal system, police, and educational system are very much built on the British model. For example


a. We drive on left side of road


b. Foods like bread-omelet, cutlets are offered in many food joints


c. Famous biscuit "Britannia" is named after Britain


d. The uniforms of many educational institutions include neckties


2. The English language also holds an important place in India.


a. It has given an edge in the Global market to Indians


b. It is a prestigious symbol if one is fluent in English


c. Lack of knowledge of English (speaking and writing) also affects the job opportunities adversely.


3. Colonialism led to mobility among people. People started to move from one part to another within India to settle themselves in a better way.


4. Our major source of Law is the English Law.



Question 2.

Industrialisation and urbanisation are linked processes. Discuss.


Answer:

Industrialisation means producing goods by use of machines which converts the steam or electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is basically based on capital intensive technique and the major role of industrialisation in India is generating employment.


Urbanisation is nothing but development of cities, towns, metro cities in such a way that a large portion of country starts moving from rural areas to urban areas


Industrialisation and urbanisation are quite linked processes because industries are set up in the urban sector, which generates employment and provides a better lifestyle. This attracts people from various sectors and the mobility of people increases from rural sectors to urban sectors to earn better living.



Question 3.

Identify any town or city with which you are familiar. Find out both the history of its growth and its contemporary status.


Answer:

Suppose we take the city Mumbai (Bombay) for the comparison process.


History of Bombay


1) Earlier Bombay was a group of seven islands and was under the control of Portuguese.


2) In 1661 the East India Company shifted its base from Surat to The Western Court of Bombay, immediately after gaining control from Portuguese due to the marriage of Portuguese princess with Britain's King Charles II.


3) In beginning, Bombay was a major outlet for cotton textile from Gujarat but in 19th century it became a major port from where the raw materials like cotton and opium were exported to Britain.


4) By the end of 19th century it became a major industrial centre.


5) In 1819 Bombay became the capital of Bombay Presidency and with the growth of trade in cotton and opium it attracted a large number of traders and bankers.


6) In 1921 there were 85 cotton mills in Bombay, which employed almost 1,46,000 workers among which only one fourth were the local inhabitants and remaining were from outside majorly from Ratnagiri.


7) By the mid of 20th century Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India as well as it was junction head of two major Railways.


The present status of Bombay now called Mumbai is –


1) It is the biggest and most crowded city of India and it is the Commercial and Financial Capital of India. Now-a-days it is also known as the Fashion Capital of India.


2) It is associated with Film Industry and is also called Mayapuri, which means "the city of wealth"


3) In present days also it attracts people from all over India because of its lifestyle, the film industry and the growing industrialisation in Mumbai.


4) Mumbai attracts people from all the regions of India and so its land area is expanding almost every year



Question 4.

You may be living in a very small town, may be in a very big city, a semi urban settlement or a village.

• Describe the place where you live.

• What are the features, which make you think it is a town and not a city, a village and not a town, or a city and not a village?

• Is there any factory where you live?

• Is agriculture the main job that people do?

♦ Is it the occupational nature that has a determining influence?

♦ Is it the buildings?

♦ Is it the availability of educational opportunities?

♦ Is it the way people live and behave?

♦ Is it the way people talk and dress?


Answer:

• I live in Ghaziabad, Delhi NCR.


• It is a city. The features that make it so are –


It has large number of population


It has a population composed of people from various cultural backgrounds


The residents have a broad mind set


It is well connected with transport system


It is all the modernised facilities in terms of Medical and education


• There are large no. of industries in Ghaziabad.


• No, agriculture is not the main job here


♦ All of the above mentioned things influence the city


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