Social Movements Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Class 12th Social Change And Development In India CBSE Solution

Questions
Question 1.

Imagine a society where there has been no social movement. Discuss. You can also describe how you imagine such a society to be.


Answer:

A society without social movement is beyond imagination but if there has been any society where there has been no social movement then it would have been of following type –

a) It would have been a very progressive society where people lived in a peaceful manner.


b) The social environment would have been cooperative and harmonious.


c) All the members of society would have been dignified and concerned with their work only.


d) The self-disciplinary system and the self-check system would have been very much present there.


e) It would have been a very model type of society which is required by every country.



Question 2.

Write short notes on:

•Women’s Movement

•Tribal Movements


Answer:

Women’s Movement

a) In the beginning of 20th century women organisations were formed at National and local level. The famous among them were Women's India Association, All India Women's Conference, and National Council of Women in India.


b) It is assumed that only middle class educated women were associated with the social movements.


c) In the mid of 1970s there was a renewal of women's movement which was called the second phase of India's women's movement.


d) These were autonomous women's movement that is the women organisations were independent from political parties.


e) The new issues that was focused by these movements were - violence against women, issues of land right, rights against sexual harassment and dowry, recognition of women having equal identity as men.


Tribal Movements


The tribal movements have been largely located in the tribal belt of India. The region that constitutes the main part in tribal movement is Jharkhand and another is North East.


1) Jharkhand tribal movement


i) Jharkhand became a new state in the year 2000 and was separated from Bihar and this was the result of social movement for Jharkhand led by charismatic leader Birsa Munda.


ii) The issues against which the movements in Jharkhand were agitated are –


(a) Acquisition of land for large irrigation project and firing ranges


(b) Survey and settlement operations, which was held up, camps close down etc.


(c) Collection of loan, rent and cooperative dues, which were resisted


(d) Nationalisation of forest produce, which they boycotted


2) North East tribal movement


i) Post-independence the Indian government started state formation and this generated disquieting trends in all major hill district in the region


ii) Due to their distinct identity and traditional autonomy they were unsure of being incorporated with the administrative machinery of Assam


iii) Earlier these tribes were isolated from mainstream of India and they had their own world view and social and cultural Institution, so they were not ready to accept the new system.


The central issue of all tribal movement was the ecological issue. The other issues were cultural issues of identity and economic issues such as inequality.



Question 3.

In India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the old and new social movements. Discuss.


Answer:

The main features of old social movements were –

a) It was class based but when it came to fight for right all the class got united.


b) The major movements were against colonialism.


c) The main concern of the movement was the struggle between what they had and what they had not.


d) It was under the guidance of political parties.


e) The movements were regarding the reorganization of power relationship whether it be the struggle of women against male domination or mobilisation of workers towards capitalist.


f) Political parties played the major role and became the voice of poor people.


g) It was basically concerned with social inequality and unequal distribution of resources.


The main features of new social movements are –


a) It started in early 1970


b) It was not class based but involved broad social group and was concerned with universal themes


c) It included movements like women's movement, environmental movement, etc.


d) It was not about re-distribution of power but about the improvement in the quality of life


e) Moments are autonomous and no more dependent upon the political parties


f) The new social movements not only covered National issues but also International issues



Question 4.

Environmental movements often also contain economic and identity issues. Discuss.


Answer:

The major environmental movement was the Chipko Movement in the Himalayan foothills. The Chipko movement is the best example of ecological movement with economical and identity issues.

a) It was the movement by the villagers to protect the forest near their villages


b) Chipko movement was based on the issue of ecological sustainability


c) Cutting down natural forest for economy of profit was a form of environmental destruction which resulted in devastating floods and landslides in the region.


d) The survival of the villagers was dependent upon the survival of the forest so they valued the forest for their own sake as well as in the form of ecological wealth for the benefit of all.



Question 5.

Distinguish between peasants and New Farmenr’s movements.


Answer:

Peasant movement started from pre-colonial era. The movements during 1858 and 1914 were localised, disjointed and were confined to particular grievances such as

•Bengal revolt against plantation of Indigo


•Deccan riots against money lender


•The Bardoli Satyagraha a non-tax campaign started by Mahatma Gandhi


•Champaran Satyagraha against Indigo plantation


•Tebhaga Movement and Telangana movement


New farmer’s movement


•It began in 1970 in Punjab and Tamilnadu


•It was regionally organised and involved farmers rather than peasants


•The basic ideology behind the movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban.


•The main focus was price and other related issues


•It used methods of agitation like blocking roads and railways, refusing politicians and bureaucrats to enter the villages and so on.


•It further included environmental and women issues also.


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