Patterns Of Social Inequality And Exclusion Class 12th Indian Society CBSE Solution

Class 12th Indian Society CBSE Solution

Questions
Question 1.

How is social inequality different from the inequality of individuals?


Answer:

The main points of differences between social inequality and individual inequality are –

a) Social inequality refers to the inequality in social status or the difference among people on the basis of their social status, whereas individual inequality means the difference in physical characteristics like age intelligence, physical power, appearance, etc of individuals.


b) Social inequalities are systematic and structured; it has a definite pattern whereas individual inequalities are natural.


c) Social inequality is not about an individual but about group where as individual inequality is about individuals.


d) Individual inequality establishes harmony in the society where as the social inequalities cause conflicts and differences.



Question 2.

What are some of the features of social stratification?


Answer:

The main features of social stratification are –

a) Social stratification is the characteristic of a society which arises due to unequal distribution of social resources among the various categories of people.


b) It continues over generations as it is closely linked to family and inheritance of social resources from one generation to next.


c) It is supported by belief system or ideology. The system of social stratification persists over generations because people find it to be fair and inevitable.



Question 3.

How would you distinguish prejudice from other kinds of opinion or belief?


Answer:

a) Prejudice refers to the opinion for attitude that a pre-conceived by the group members about members of other groups.

b) Basically it is a prejudgment about anything which is made before considering any available evidence.


c) The prejudice may be positive or negative.


d) Prejudices are fixed, stereotype and rigid.


e) The basic difference between prejudice and opinion or belief is that opinions or beliefs are based upon experiences and can be changed in different circumstances.



Question 4.

What is social exclusion?


Answer:

Social exclusion is a way in which some individuals and groups are excluded from being involved in the wider society. It considers a wide range of factors that prevention individuals or groups from being included to the majority of the population.

Social exclusion is not accidental or natural but it is systematically created by the structural features of society.


It is involuntary, that is the exclusion of groups and individuals is regardless of their wishes of being excluded.



Question 5.

What is the relationship between caste and economic inequality today?


Answer:

The caste system is a distinct feature of Indian social institution. It legitimises and forces various discrimination against people born into particular caste. This practice of discrimination is exclusionary as well as humiliating.

According to the hierarchy of caste system each class has a specific place and social status in the society. The caste system is very closely related to the economic status and the economic inequality persistent in the society.


However, in modern society the link between caste and class is not that rigid as it used to be earlier.


The relation between caste and economic class his getting weaker with the increase in education level and modernization of people.



Question 6.

What is untouchability?


Answer:

Untouchability is extreme and quiet brutal aspect of caste system. The untouchable cast are located at the bottom of the purity pollution scale in the total caste system.

Such castes are outside the caste hierarchy and are considered to be impure. It was believed that merely the touch of such people pollute the other castes.


The Institution of untouchability is not only limited to the avoidance of prohibition of physical contact but to a broader set of social sanction.



Question 7.

Describe some of the policies designed to address caste inequality.


Answer:

Since independence Indian government has taken various steps to reduce caste inequality. Special programs for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes have been designed and the process started even prior to Independence.

The most important initiative taken by State of India was Reservation, which was introduced to compensate the past and present caste discrimination. Reservation means to set aside some places or seats for the members of scheduled caste and tribes in different spheres of public life like in educational institutions, in public sector jobs, in government jobs, in State and Central legislature.


In addition to reservation various laws have been enacted to eliminate the caste discrimination and to punish the people who are found to be practicing such discrimination specially untouchability.


The various laws that were passed in this respect –


a) Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850, which disallowed the exclusion of rights of citizens due to change of religion or caste. It allowed the Dalits to take education from Government schools.


b) Constitution Amendment (93rd Amendment) Act of 2005, introduced reservation for OBCs for higher education in educational institutions


c) Scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989, to abolish untouchability



Question 8.

How are the Other Backward Castes different from the Dalits (or Scheduled Castes)?


Answer:

Other backward classes include those who are socially and educationally backward classes; it was not based on caste alone.

OBCs are neither the part of forward castes no of the Dalits. It is a much more diverse group than the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.


Therefore, the following differences can be highlighted between OBC and Scheduled castes –


a) OBCs or not any particular group like SC and ST but they are individuals from almost all communities having standard of living below poverty line or who are backward in any sense.


b) OBCs have been recognised since early 1990s whereas SC & ST have been recognised by Government of India Act 1935 during colonial period of India.


c) Reservation for OBC is different than that for SC and ST



Question 9.

What are the major issues of concern to Adivasis today?


Answer:

Adivasis are the people of tribes considered as Scheduled Tribes. These are the social groups who suffers with –

• Poverty


• Powerlessness


• Social Stigma


These are the people of forest having their habitat in the hills and the forests are the main source of their economic, social and political attributes.


The tribal areas are economically and socially backward.


Due to the capital-Intensive industrialisation policy of Indian Govt. the Adivasi lands were rapidly acquired by new mines and damns.


In the name of economic development and economic growth, the Adivasis were being detached from the resources they were dependent upon.



Question 10.

What are the major issues taken up by the women’s movement over its history?


Answer:

Other backward classes include those who are socially and educationally backward classes; it was not based on caste alone.

Due to the biological and physical differences between men and women, the gender inequality was treated to be quite natural. The women's movement started in 19th century and was also termed as middle class social reform movement because the reformers were from western educated Indian middle class.


The nature of these movements varied from region to region. Some of the major movements were -


• Anti-Sati campaign by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal


• Widow remarriage Movement in Bombay Presidency


• Jyotiba Phule, from socially excluded caste, directed the movement against both caste and gender discrimination


• Sir Syed Ahmed Khan made efforts to reform Muslim society and emphasised on female education, etc.



Question 11.

In what sense can one say that ‘disability’ is as much a social as a physical thing?


Answer:

Those who had physically or mentally challenged are not disable only due to this reason but also because the society does not accept them as normal persons.


The social perception about disability all over the world are -


• It is biological and has come due to some past karma.


• The disabled person cannot solve his/her problems as others.


• They are seen as victims.


• It is supposed to be linked with the self-perception of the disabled individual.


• They always need help.


• “Bechara” attitude for disable person.


They too suffered social exclusion. From very recent it has been started to include them with other peoples in society and the major reforms in this field are though quite few but still has started and are –


• They are no more called disabled but differently abled


• Many service sectors have been directed to reserve jobs for them, etc.


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