Non-fiction - 1. Freedom Class 12th Kaleidoscope CBSE Solution

Class 12th Kaleidoscope CBSE Solution
Stop And Think-pg-123
  1. What are the links between natural jobs, labor and slavery?
  2. What ought to be the object of all governments, and what do we actually find it to be?…
Stop And Think-pg-127
  1. What causes the master class to be more deluded than the enslaved classes?…
  2. According to Aristotle, what are the conditions to be fulfilled for the common people to…
  3. How can reasonable laws, impartially administered, contribute to one’s freedom?…
  4. What are the ways in which individual freedom gets restricted?
Stop And Think-pg-131
  1. Why do most people find it easier to conform, imitate, and follow a self-appointed guru?…
  2. What is the inward struggle that the author refers to?
Understanding The Text
  1. Point out the difference between the slavery of man to Nature and the unnatural slavery of…
  2. What are the ways in which people are subjected to greater control in the personal spheres…
  3. List the common misconceptions about ‘freedom’ that Shaw tries to debunk.…
  4. Why, according to Krishnamurti, are the concepts of freedom and discipline contradictory…
  5. How does the process of inquiry lead to true freedom?
Talking About The Text
  1. According to the author, the masses are prevented from realizing their slavery; the masses…
  2. ‘Nature may have tricks up her sleeve to check us if the chemists exploit her too…
  3. Respect for elders is not to be confused with blind obedience. Discuss.…
Appreciation
  1. Both the texts are on ‘freedom’. Comment on the difference in the style of treatment of…
  2. When Shaw makes a statement he supports it with a number of examples. Identify two…
  3. Notice the use of personal pronouns in the two texts. Did this make you identify yourself…
Task
  1. Split the following sentences into their constituent clauses • There is no freedom if you…
  2. When you see a servant carrying a heavy carpet, do you give him a helping hand?…
  3. Very young children will eat needles and matches eagerly—but the diet is not a nourishing…
  4. We must sleep or go mad: but then sleep is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in…
  5. Always call freedom by its old English name of leisure, and keep clamoring for more…
  6. Write the sound sequences for the following words

Stop And Think-pg-123
Question 1.

What are the links between natural jobs, labor and slavery?


Answer:

According to George Bernard Shaw there are links between natural jobs, labor and slavery because natural jobs can be slavery in their context we are doing natural jobs to earn a living for that we are using other living beings as our slaves and we are also the slaves of the masters who provide us the job and he will be a slave of some others and this cycle continues in the society therefore there is a link between natural job, labor and slavery.



Question 2.

What ought to be the object of all governments, and what do we actually find it to be?


Answer:

The object of all honest governments should be to protect the citizens from slavery and to ensure a peaceful living condition to them and their family. But the object of most actual governments, is exactly the opposite. They enforce our slavery and call it freedom. But they also regulate our slavery, keeping the greed of our masters within certain bounds.




Stop And Think-pg-127
Question 1.

What causes the master class to be more deluded than the enslaved classes?


Answer:

A gentleman whose mind has been formulated at a primary school about the privileges the sons of gentlemen could enjoy in the society, followed by a public school and university course, is much more thoroughly taken in by the misleading history and dishonest political economy and the snobbery taught in these places than any worker can possibly be, because the gentleman’s education teaches him that he is a very fine fellow, superior to the common run of men whose duty it is to brush his clothes, carry his parcels, and earn his income for him, and as he thoroughly agrees with this view of himself, he honestly believes that the system which has placed him in such an agreeable situation and done such justice to his merits is the best of all possible systems, . But the great mass of our rack-rented, underpaid, treated-as-inferiors cast-off-on the-poor workers cannot feel so sure about it as the gentleman.



Question 2.

According to Aristotle, what are the conditions to be fulfilled for the common people to accept law and order, and government, and all that they imply?


Answer:

According to Aristotle the condition to be fulfilled for the common people to accept law and order and government and all that they imply is that they must make men ignorant idolaters before they will become obedient workers and law-abiding citizens so that they will obey each and every rule implemented by the government since they are ignorant idol worshippers.



Question 3.

How can reasonable laws, impartially administered, contribute to one’s freedom?


Answer:

If laws are reasonable and impartially administered we will have no reason to complain, because they increase our freedom by protecting us from assault, highway robbery, and disorder generally. If we are living in a modern country we ought to obey some rules which restricts us from doing certain things that is our freedom is denied there so laws should be reasonable, impartially administered will contribute to one’s freedom



Question 4.

What are the ways in which individual freedom gets restricted?


Answer:

If we live in a civilized country our freedom is restricted by the laws of the land enforced by the police, who compel us to do this, and not to do that, and to pay rates and taxes. If we do not obey these laws the courts will imprison us, and, if we go too far, they will subject us to death.




Stop And Think-pg-131
Question 1.

Why do most people find it easier to conform, imitate, and follow a self-appointed guru?


Answer:

Most people find it easier to conform, imitate and follow a self-appointed guru because according to common people to follow somebody is easy than making unique paths because following somebody imitating them will have less strain because the path is made by somebody else and he also made a code of conduct to follow when walking through his path and people find it easier to imitate and follow those rules because no hard work or creativity is needed to do so.



Question 2.

What is the inward struggle that the author refers to?


Answer:

Intelligence demands us to break away from usual tradition and live on our own style. but we are enclosed by our parents whose ideas of what should we do and what we should do not do and by the traditions of society. So, there is a conflict going on inwardly among youngsters about the do’s and dont’s they should follow in the society leading to a conflict in mind when we want to do something and being prevented from doing it.




Understanding The Text
Question 1.

Point out the difference between the slavery of man to Nature and the unnatural slavery of man to Man.


Answer:

Man’s slavery to nature is joyful. We feel greatest pleasure in fulfilling our natural needs. it is pleasant to eat, drink, to sleep. But the slavery of man to man is unnatural. It is hateful both physically and spiritually. It leads to class war between the rich and the poor, the slaves and their masters, the workers and the capitalists. Obviously, there cannot be any peace in society unless this class war ends.



Question 2.

What are the ways in which people are subjected to greater control in the personal spheres than in the wider political sphere?


Answer:

People are subjected to greater control in personal spheres than wider political sphere because common people are not interested in representing political sphere and they are fond of living in a safe zone than entering into political zone and common people are busy in their personal matters other than entering to political sphere.



Question 3.

List the common misconceptions about ‘freedom’ that Shaw tries to debunk.


Answer:

The major misconception about freedom that Shaw point out is that the people of England don’t know what freedom is, and they never enjoyed real freedom yet so that are misleading themselves without the real knowing real meaning of freedom Always call freedom by its old English name of leisure, and keep roaring for more leisure and more money to enjoy it in return for an honest share of

work.



Question 4.

Why, according to Krishnamurti, are the concepts of freedom and discipline contradictory to one another?


Answer:

Discipline and freedom are contradictory to one another and that in seeking real freedom there is set going quite a different process which brings its own clarification so that you just do not do certain things. Freedom and discipline are contradictory to each other since they can be taken as two sides of same coin that is they are interrelated to each other and real freedom is acquired through discipline.



Question 5.

How does the process of inquiry lead to true freedom?


Answer:

The process of inquiry leads to real freedom because to think deeply and to go into things and discover for oneself what is true is, is very difficult it requires alert, perception, constant inquiry but most of the people have neither time nor energy for doing so constant inquiry help us to understand which one is true and which is false.




Talking About The Text
Question 1.

According to the author, the masses are prevented from realizing their slavery; the masses are also continually reminded that they have the right to vote. Do you think this idea holds good for our country too?


Answer:

According to the author, the masses are prevented from realizing their slavery because the master class through their newspapers, schools and parliaments makes the desperate efforts to prevent us from realizing our slavery. According to them we all are free and the freedom was won for us by our forefathers and even today common people are not actually free they are only given the right to vote but the important decision is taken by the authorities without consulting the voters the same situation is prevailing in our country too.



Question 2.

‘Nature may have tricks up her sleeve to check us if the chemists exploit her too greedily.’ Discuss.


Answer:

Nature may have tricks up her sleeve to check us if the chemists exploit her too greedily is really related to today’s context because overexploitation of resources is the hazard to nature today. In today’s world we have technology to cultivate both sky and land but these methods if used without any control we will have to face severe problems in the future that is if we try to exploit nature for our greed then nature will resist it by its own way.



Question 3.

Respect for elders is not to be confused with blind obedience. Discuss.


Answer:

Respecting elders is not to be confused with blind obedience because respecting elders is not of the meaning that to obey them blindly. Respecting and obeying elders is the usual tradition of our society and if we follow this tradition it is very helpful to us but obedience and blind obedience has different meaning. All individuals will have their own ethics in their mind and we should check whether the advice of the elders is matching to our own views on the topic and blind obedience is slavery, not freedom.




Appreciation
Question 1.

Both the texts are on ‘freedom’. Comment on the difference in the style of treatment of the topic in them.


Answer:

Both the text is on the topic freedom but both refer on the same topic with a different style in the first text George Bernard Shaw treats freedom as a condition when an individual is free from external control over his thoughts and actions. Independence includes the complete freedom to live peacefully and people must be free from all the problems that they are facing otherwise it is slavery and the text discusses various aspects of freedom with reference to human society.

In the second text freedom and discipline and interrelation among both the aspects with great concept, clarity is being discussed by the author. According to the author the more you resist or struggle against something, the less you comprehend it. Surely, it is only when there is


freedom, real freedom to think, to discover—that you can find out anything. Freedom has wider aspects to think and real freedom is beyond the reach of a common man.



Question 2.

When Shaw makes a statement he supports it with a number of examples. Identify two sections of the text which explain a statement with examples. Write down the main statement and the examples.

Notice how this contributes to the effectiveness of the writing.


Answer:

Example 1.

If you live in a civilized country your freedom is restricted by the laws of the land enforced by the police, who oblige you to do this, and not


to do that, and to pay rates and taxes. If you do not obey these laws the courts will imprison you, and, if you go too far, kill you.


Example 2.


For instance, you are told by your parents and your teachers what is right and what is wrong, what is bad and what is beneficial. You know what people say, what the priest says, what tradition says, and what you have learned in school. All this forms a kind of enclosure within which you live; and, living in that enclosure, you say you are free.



Question 3.

Notice the use of personal pronouns in the two texts. Did this make you identify yourself more with the topic than if it had been written in an impersonal style? As you read the texts, were you able to relate the writer’s thoughts on the way you lead your own life?


Answer:

The use of personal pronouns has really enriched both the text the usage of personal pronouns helps us to identify ourselves in the text with the context of real freedom and as both the texts are written using personal pronouns it helps us to relate with the writer's thoughts with our own life.




Task
Question 1.

Split the following sentences into their constituent clauses

• There is no freedom if you are enclosed by self-interest or by various walls of discipline.


Answer:

a) There is no freedom-subordinate clause

b) if you are enclosed by self-interest or by various walls of discipline - main clause


Reason. You can see that (b) is complete in its sense. This is the main clause. The meaning of clause (a) depends on (b). This is the subordinate clause. Sentences with the main clause and one or more subordinate clauses are complex sentences.



Question 2.

When you see a servant carrying a heavy carpet, do you give him a helping hand?


Answer:

When you see a servant carrying a heavy carpet – the main clause

do you give him a helping hand? – subordinate clause.



Question 3.

Very young children will eat needles and matches eagerly—but the diet is not a nourishing one.


Answer:

Very young children will eat needles and matches eagerly - main clause

but the diet is not a nourishing one. - subordinate clause



Question 4.

We must sleep or go mad: but then sleep is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in getting up in the morning.


Answer:

We must sleep or go mad- subordinate clause

but then sleep is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in getting up in the morning- main clause



Question 5.

Always call freedom by its old English name of leisure, and keep clamoring for more leisure and more money to enjoy it in return for an honest share of work.


Answer:

Always call freedom by its old English name of leisure, and keep clamoring for more leisure- main clause

more money to enjoy it in return for an honest share of work. -subordinate clause



Question 6.

Write the sound sequences for the following words



Answer:

sleep - CCVC

Thrift - CCVCC


Snake - CCVCV


Task - CVCC


Smear- CCVC


Facts - CVCCC


Sweet-CCVC


Boast- CVCC


Strain-CCCVC


Street-CCCVC


Strangle-CCCVCCV


Strengths-CCCVCCC


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