International Organisations Class 12th Contemporary World Politics CBSE Solution

Class 12th Contemporary World Politics CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power.

a. Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.

b. It’s a kind of negative power.

c. The Secretary-General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.

d. One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.


Answer:

a) Correct


Explanation- it is only the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council i.e. USA, Russia, United Kingdom, France and china, that possess the veto power.


b) Correct.


Explanation- veto is a kind of negative power because, while voting in the proceedings of the Security Council, all members have one vote. Any of the permanent members can vote in a negative manner in such a way that even if all other permanent and non-permanent members vote in favour, one member’s negative vote can stall the decision.


c) Incorrect


Explanation- The Secretary General is only the chief administrative officer of the Security Council. His job entails a wide range of administrative, managerial and substantive tasks and serves as representative and spokesperson of the Security Council. He has no power whatsoever regarding then decision making process.


d) Correct.


Explanation- using the power of negative vote i.e. the veto power, any of the permanent members can stall a Security Council resolution.



Question 2.

Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions.

(a) All security and peace related issues are dealt with in the Security Council.

(b) Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.

(c) Having consensus among the five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.

(d) The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.


Answer:

(a) - Correct


Explanation- security and peace related issues are dealt with in the Security Council. The Security Council establishes a peacekeeping operation by adopting a Security Council Resolution.


(b) - Correct


Explanation- specialised agencies like UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), WHO (World Health Organisation), UNDP (United Nations Development Program), UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Commission) are one of the few agencies spread across the globe for implementation of humanitarian policies.


(c) - Correct


Explanation- Consensus among the five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation as veto power can be used by any of them to cast a negative vote in the Security Council which can stall decisions on such issues.


(d) - Incorrect


Explanation- the members of general assembly are not automatically the members of all other principle organs and specialised agencies of UN. They have their own separate membership.



Question 3.

Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?

(a) Nuclear capability

(b) It has been a member of the UN since its inception

(c) It is located in Asia

(d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system


Answer:

(d) - India’s growing economic power and stable political system.


Explanation- India is one of the largest democracies of the world. India is also one of the most populous countries containing approximately 1/5th population of the world. India has participated in virtually in all of the initiatives of the UN. It has persistent and substantial efforts in the peacekeeping role of the UN. India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and made its payments within time. All these are few of the major preconditions required for becoming a permanent member in the Security Council and India posses them, therefore, despite the other options also carrying some weightage, Option D would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the UN Security Council.



Question 4.

The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:

(a) The UN Committee on Disarmament

(b) International Atomic Energy Agency

(c) UN International Safeguard Committee

(d) None of the above


Answer:

Option (b) - IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international body established in 1957 that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and discourage its usage for military purposes.


The UN Committee on Disarmament is concerned with promoting disarmament among nations of the world and establish peace.


The UN International Safeguard Committee aims at overall security and safety of the nations.



Question 5.

WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations

(a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs

(b) General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs

(c) World Health Organisation

(d) UN Development Programme


Answer:

Option (a)


Explanation- WTO is an international organisation that sets the rules and regulations for world trade. It was a successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs created after the Second World War.



Question 6.

Fill in the blanks.

(a) The prime objective of the UN is _______________

(b) The highest functionary of the UN is called____________

(c) The UN Security Council has _____ permanent and _____non permanent members.

(d) ___________ is the present UN Secretary-General.


Answer:

(a) - Peacekeeping.


The United Nations was a body formed after the wrath and destruction caused by the Second World War with the intention of maintaining global peace and prevent any further wars.


(b) - Secretary General.


Secretary General is the most important, public and highest functionary of the UN.


(c) - 5, 10


The UN Security Council has 5 permanent members namely- USA, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China and 10 non permanent members elected for a term of two years by the general assembly.


(d) - Ban Ki Moon


The present secretary general is Ban Ki Moon from South Korea.



Question 7.

Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions:

1. Economic and Social Council

2. International Court of Justice

3. International Atomic Energy Agency

4. Security Council

5. UN High Commission for Refugees

6. World Trade Organisation

7. International Monetary Fund

8. General Assembly

9. World Health Organisation

10. Secretariat

A. Oversees the global financial system

B. Preservation of international peace and security

C. Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries

D. Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology

E. Resolves disputes between and among member countries

F. Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies

G. Debates and discusses global issues

H. Administration and coordination of UN affairs

I. Providing good health for all

J. Facilitates free trade among member countries


Answer:

1) Economic and social council- C) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries


ECOSOC i.e. the Economic and social council is UN’s principal platform for debates and discussion over various economic and social issues and sustainable development.


2) International Court of Justice- E) Resolves disputes between and among member countries


It is the primary judicial branch of the UN for solving disputes between various states.


3) International Atomic Energy Agency- D) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.


4) Security Council- B) Preservation of international peace and security


The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security.


5) UN High Commission for Refugees- F) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies


UNHCR is a United Nations programme mandated to protect and support refugees.


6) World Trade Organisation- J) Facilitates free trade among member countries


The WTO is an international organisation set up in 1995 to frame rules for world trade.


7) International Monetary Fund- A) Oversees the global financial system


IMF is an international body that looks after those financial institutions and regulations that act at international level.


8) General Assembly- G) Debates and discusses global issues


The general assembly is an assembly of all the member nations of the UN and debates and discussions regarding worldly issues are discussed here.


9) World Health Organisation- I) Providing good health for all


The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.


10) Secretariat- H) Administration and coordination of UN affairs


It is one of the 6 major organs of the UN and is the executive arm of the UN.



Question 8.

What are the functions of the Security Council?


Answer:

The functions of the Security Council are-


a) The Security Council proposes methods to solve disputes among nations.


b) The Security Council elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.


c) It also appoints the Secretary General by recommending to the General assembly.


d) Military action can also be taken by the Security Council if required.


e) The Security Council can also give economic sanctions to stop any aggression.


f) The Security Council can investigate into dispute among nations if friction comes up.



Question 9.

As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council? Justify your proposal.


Answer:

It has been 70 years since India has been an independent country and India has come a long way. From being an infant nation with germinating economy, industry and polity, India has become a much developed nation and has become one of the most powerful Asian countries. Following are some of the few factors supporting India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the security council-


a) India is the largest democracy of the world and supports almost 1/5th population of the world which makes it a representative of a substantial number of people of the world.


b) India participates in almost all of the initiatives taken by the UN.


c) India has largely supported, promoted and been a part of UN’s peacekeeping missions.


d) India has emerged as a nation that is economically sound and independent. It is one of the healthy and growing economies of the world.


e) India has also contributed financially to various initiatives of the UN and has also never faltered in making payments.


f) India has since ancient times been a country sheltering various religions of the world under one umbrella. It is an embodiment of ethnic, cultural and religious cohesiveness and has always propagated peace and cooperation which also forms the spirit of the UN.


Therefore, India is a very promising candidate for the permanent membership of the Security Council.



Question 10.

Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.


Answer:

The difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN are-


• There was no specification regarding how big an economy can become a part of the UN Security Council.


• There was also no specification regarding the required military strength of a nation for membership.


• No target regarding the required budget contribution.


• There was a clash between basis of determination of UNSC membership i.e. between geography and economic development.


• Population couldn’t be classified as an asset or a liability.


• The basis of cultural representation was also unresolved. How could one divide the world by culture and civilisation when nations contain several cultures within their borders?


• There was also a proposal regarding change in membership of the UNSC altogether. Some wanted the veto power of the UNSC members to be abolished. Others considered it to be in conflict with the concept of democracy and sovereignty of states.


The above criteria are the ones that were adopted but weren’t publically accepted and are the difficulties involved in implementing reforms to the UN.



Question 11.

Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?


Answer:

Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation because without it the world would be worse off.


• There is requirement for an international body which keeps a watch over myriad activities going on over the world so that no one nation dominates over others.


• The UN makes interdependence and globalisation possible. The World Trade Organisation makes global trade possible and regulates it for free and fair trade.


• Technology is increasing planetary interdependence which makes the need for UN even more.


• The international Monetary Fund and the World Bank are organisations that help various new and developing economies of the world to grow and also prevent economic crises by maintaining economy of the world.


• UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, UNDP etc are all international UN organisations made for humanitarian activities and are the need of the hour for the world.


• The UN works as a forum where nations can put up their disputes which can be resolved in the best way possible.


Hence, despite failing to prevent wars and related miseries, the world is in dire need of UN.



Question 12.

‘Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council’. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.


Answer:

The statement ‘Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council’ is true. The Security Council forms the most important part of the UN. The UNSC consists countries that are major economic, political and military powers in today’s world- USA, Russia, china, France and the United Kingdom. These five permanent members of the council also possess the veto power and collaborate in taking important decisions regarding the whole world. Besides, there are also 10 permanent members elected from all the continents for a term of two years. They represent their continent and have a platform for redressal of its woes. This group also consists of countries that are still developing and have various needs. Such countries get representation through UNSC. Higher involvement of countries all over the world on the platform of Security Council will also promote the ultimate motive of UN- peacekeeping.


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