An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara Class 12th Themes In Indian History Part Ii CBSE Solution

Class 12th Themes In Indian History Part Ii CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

What have been the methods used to study the ruins of Hampi over the last two centuries? In what way do you think they would have complemented the information provided by the priests of the Virupaksha temple?


Answer:

An engineer and antiquarian Colonel Colin Mackenzie brought the ruins of Hampi to radiance in 1800 C.E. He was an employee in the East India Company. He prepared the first survey map of this site. His initial information were based on the memories of priest of the Virupaksha temple and shrine of Pampadevi. From 1856 C.E. onwards photographers started to record the pictures of monuments of this site which helped the scholars to study them. Dozens of inscriptions were collected from here and other temples of Hampi. Historians collected information from these sources, accounts of foreign travellers and other literature written in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit language so that history of the city could be reconstructed.



Question 2.

How were the water requirements of Vijayanagara met?


Answer:

The Kingdom of Vijayanagara was located in the natural basin formed by river Tungabhadra which flowers in a north – easterly direction, the surrounding landscape is characterised by granite hills from which a number of streams flow down to the river from these rocky outcrops.

TANKS – The rulers of Vijayanagara got the embankments built along these structures to create tanks of varying sizes.


NETWORK OF PIPES – The reservoirs were also used to collect rain water and then through a well laid out system of pipes (approx 15 k.m) the water was transported to the adjacent fields and to the city.


The most important of such tanks was the ‘Kamalapuram Tank’ which not only irrigated nearby fields but also provided water to the Royal centre.


CANALS – The king of the Sangama Dynasty got a canal made – the Hiriya canal. It drew water from a drain across the Tungabhadrs.


According to domingo paes; a foreign travellers who visited India in the 16th century wrote that the king Krishnadeva Raya made a tank after breaking two hills.



Question 3.

What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city?


Answer:

Vijayanagara was a fortified city with enclosed agriculture with its own advantages and disadvantage:

There were seven lines of fort walls which encircled not only the city but also agriculture hinterland and forest.


Abdur Razzaq voted that ‘between the first, second and third walls, there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses. Rice was grown in the fields and to irrigate these fields there was an elaborate network of water from the Tungabhadra to provide irrigation facilities. This enclosure saved the crops by the animals.


The main reason behind enclosing the agricultural land was –“The Medieval sieges”. The objectives of the medieval sieges were to starve the defenders into submission. So, the rulers of Vijayanagara adopted a more expensive and elaborate strategy for protecting the agriculture belt itself.


Disadvantages were:


It was an expensive system.


It the crops failed for same reason in case of serge, there was no alternative arrangement.



Question 4.

What do you think was the significance of the rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba?


Answer:

The Mahanavami Dibba was the king’s palace in Vijayanagara though there is no definite evidence. It had a distinctive structure. It had the largest enclosures and an impressive platform called as ‘the audience hall’. It was surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them.

There were many rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba. Literally Mahanavami meant the great ninth day of the ten-day, Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October. This period had Dussehra in the northern India, Durga Pooja In Bengal and Navaratri or Mahanavami in peninsular India. The rulers of Vijayanagara displayed their power and prestige on this occasion.


The ceremonies performed on this occasion included:


a. Worship of the image.


b. Worship of the State horse


c. The sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.


d. The main attractions of this occasion were:


1. Dances


2. Wrestling matches


3. Processions of caparisoned horses, elephants, chariots and soldiers.


All these ceremonies had deep symbolic meanings. Most of them were presented before the king and his guests. On the last day of the festival, the king inspected his army as well as the armies of the Nayaks. He also accepted rich gifts from the Nayaks. There was a grand ceremony in an open ield.



Question 5.

Fig. 7.33 is an illustration of another pillar from the Virupaksha temple. Do you notice any floral motifs? What are the animals shown? Why do you think they are depicted? Describe the human figures shown.